Lipids Assignment Question:The application of lipids in the food industry? IntroductionLipidscan be defined as a group of organic compounds consisting of fatsand other substances of comparable properties, they are very insoluble in waterbut however they are soluble in fat solvents and alcohol, and they are slippery tothe touch, and are critical constituents of living cells. Through alot of research, it has been agreed upon that fats and oils are very importantin their use in a variety of foods. Fats and oils bring about a lot ofdesirable qualities in a number of foodstuffs such as in adding tenderness, determiningtexture, adding desired flavor to shortened cake. There is therefore a lot ofapplication of lipids in the food industry and they are as follows: Application in the chocolate andconfectionery Chocolate manufacturing process normallyfollows the common steps.
Firstly, the ingredients such as cocoa liquor, sugar,cocoa butter, and skimmed milkpowder (depending on product category) are merged. After which therefining procedure takes place in a 2, 3, or 5-roll refiner. This is an imperativephase to attain a smooth texture necessary for the present chocolate products,and the final particle size critically impacts the rheological and sensoryproperties. Following, conching, which is normally carried out by stirringchocolate at more than 50 °C for few hours, takes place. One of the chief goalsof conching is to produce the optimum viscosity for the following processing,and in this phase fat is very vital.
Ultimately, there is the tempering ofmass, following the most regularly steps such as: thorough melting, cooling tothe point of crystallization, crystallization, and melting out of unstablecrystals. The aim of tempering is to create a satisfactory number of seedcrystals to stimulate the total fat phase to crystallize in a steadierpolymorphic state. This in turn will make a more stable product and consequentlya better overall contraction.
The most stable form crystals of cocoa butter,which is the form V, is achieved through systems of heating/cooling (maintainedat 35 °C). Application in Baking (Shortening)Bakeryproducts are amongst the utmost consumed foodstuffs in the entire world. Amongstthem, cakes are generally popular and are thought to be by the consumers astasty products with specific sensory characteristics. Theresponsibility of fat in manufactured cakes and bakery products in general isvery key equally from the technological point of view and the sensory point ofview. Many bakery products need a reasonably high fat content. Shortenings haveseveral functions in bakery products; amongst them are: texture, softness,structure integrity, mouthfeel, lubrication, air entrapment, heat transfer, andprolonged shelf life. Applications in ice creamsIce creamis a colloidal complex food, which comprises of fat globules, air bubbles, andice crystals distributed in an aqueous phase of high viscosity comprising ofproteins, salts, sugars, and polysaccharides. Therefore, ice cream is concurrentlyan emulsion (fat globules), a sol (ice crystals), and a foam (air bubbles).
Icecream usually contains about 30 % of ice, 50 % of air, 5 % of fat, and 15 % ofsugar solution in volume; therefore, it is comprised of all states of matter:solid (ice and fat), liquid (sugar solution), and gas. Applications in bread makingFats areused in bread making to advance gas retention in the dough and thus increasingits volume and softness, to lubricate, to aerate, and to help heat transfer inthe dough imparting the much-needed texture. The quantity to be added is sorelydependent on the type of flour (whole meal need higher levels than white). Afat fraction should remain solid into the dough until the end of fermentation(45 °C).
Numerous kinds of shortenings are used in breads, such as butter,solid and liquid margarines, oils, and commercial fats. Applications of lipids in fryingThe majoruse of cooking oil is in frying, where it functions as a heat transfer mediumand contributes flavor and texture to foods. One requirement of a cooking oilis that it be stable under the very abusive conditions of deep-fat frying,namely, high temperatures and moisture. In general, oil should be kept at amaximum temperature of 180°C during frying. Frying food at a temperature whichis too low results in increased fat uptake.
Water, which is contributed by thefoods that are fried in an oil enhances the breakdown of fatty acids whichoccurs during heating. Hydrolysis results in a poor-quality oil that has areduced smoke point, darkened color and altered flavor. During heating, oilsalso polymerize, creating a viscous oil that is readily absorbed by foods andthat produces a greasy product. The more saturated (solid) the oil, the morestable it is to oxidative and hydrolytic breakdown, and the less likely it isto polymerize. Applications in salad dressing A majoruse of salad oils is in pourable salad dressings. Traditional salad dressings,some of which are emulsified, consist of a two-phase system of oil and waterwith 55-65 percent oil. A salad oil coats the salad ingredients, spreading the flavorof the dressing that improves the palatability of the salad.
The other majoruse of salad oils is in mayonnaise and thick salad dressings, which contain 80and 35-50 percent oil, respectively. The oil in mayonnaise is responsible forviscosity, whereas the oils in thick salad dressings help to modify themouthfeel of the starch paste that thickens the product.A saladoil must not contain solid crystals that, when refrigerated, would impart awaxy, tallow texture, would break the emulsion formed between water and oil, orwould give the product a cloudy appearance. Oils can be winterized, a processthat removes solid crystals formed at refrigerator temperatures. Conclusion The rangeof food uses requires a variety of fats and oils with characteristics tailoredto meet these needs. Efforts to modify the composition of fats and oils may belimited by these various technical requirements.