Knowledge is known as “having answers”,you can have knowledge when you are familiar and have an understanding offacts, information, or skills, which are learned by self-experience orlearning. Critical thinking is the analysis of facts and information, in orderto form a judgment. Critical thinking is known as having cognitive skills,being goal directed, being able to solve complex problems, and make decisions.In relation to knowledge and critical thinking, knowledge can be known ashaving the answers, while critical thinking can be identified as having thoseanswers and knowing and understanding what they mean. Halpern’s Four Part Model is composed offour parts; the first one being to develop disposition for effortful thinkingand learning, which basically means that you want to think critically, someonemay have critical thinking skills and not even use them. The second part islearning the skills of critical thinking, people should be able to be taughtand be able to use these skills, and if they do this they will become bettercritical thinkers. The third part is direct learning activities for transcontextual transfer, which means you need to look deeper into the situation,and be able to understand that there is not only one solution to a problem.
Thefourth part is to develop metacognition, this one is important because you areable to give off an automatic response to things you are critically analyzing, thinkingabout, or information you already know. Critical thinking is not a byproduct ofgood education; someone may be born with great critical thinking skills, butthey may not know how to use and apply them appropriately. Being able tocritically think or analyze things is something that is usually taught orlearned and acquired from specifically being taught about critical thinking,which is why there is an entire course on it, to teach us to become moreengaging critical thinkers. One are of research is transfer of training, wherewe try to open our minds to different ways of doing something. Self-regulation,having an understanding of our feedback and being able to assess it is criticalin progress towards a goal of ours.
System 2 thinking is another area ofresearch, this type of thinking it thought to be slow and effortful. Imagery isanother way to improve our thinking skills, thinking of a picture in our mindswhile trying to remember something is essential to improve our thinking.