Qamber Ali Nazari
Zabihulrahman –––––––––––––– 912-1604075
Subject: Problem Solving and Decision Making
Program MBA – Non-business, Term
C, Semester 4th
Table of Contents
Literature Review.. 5
Designed of Research Framework.. 7
Structured Survey.. 7
Analysis Methods. 7
proficiency is a major issue in all organizations around the world. For better
understanding of all aspects of disobedient of employees within the
organizations, this problem shall be addressed comprehensively. In this
assignment we determine the preferred of employee performance such as Goal Setting and Role advantage in
organizations. To reach our aim a verification method was used to collect 60
feedbacks from staff/employees of various organizations working in national or
international organizations in Kabul. The payoff/outcome of analysis indicates
great results in which Goal Setting and
Role Benefit has considerable impacts on employee performance at all level
of industrial sectors, national and international organizations. The study
represents considerable pattern to contribute with those organizations which
are in developing of their strategies for the personal development so that to
enhance effectiveness and efficiency. Organizations may prevent high costs in
hiring new employees.
Keywords: Employee Performance, Goal
Setting, Role Benefit, in Private Sector in Afghanistan.
performance/proficiency has obtained a major value of consideration during
previous decades on business compression also among consultancy companies and
the experts’ communities.
They claim employee performance is a recent practice
in the field of human resource that industries and firms could utilize it to
the extent that understand all aspects of disobedient industries. Whatsoever, on the academic atmosphere, this sense appears
quite recent, and hence, the concept needs difficult initial studies to validate
consideration of the applicability of work performance, this recently available
research evidences have been developed. There have been questions like; how the
proficiency can be increased and why? It will be fruitful to individuals,
organizations and firms to answer questions like these.
The current research
goal is to determine employee/staff performance through introducing goal
setting and role benefit which will further lead to increase employees’
This research represents
employee’s performance in national and international organization and at the
meanwhile in governmental organization in Afghanistan. In likeness with the
purpose and goal of the study, 4 hypotheses were suggested based on many
theories: Kahn’s three psychological conditions theory, job demands-resources
model, social exchange theory, and conservation of resources theory. Given that
employee performance is an important current topic for most of organizations, the
detection will furnish a clear picture of how employee performance will drive away
the overall efficiency and interests of an organizations/firms.
Staff efficiency is a managerial significance and conceptuality which
determines how initiated and aspiring a staff/employee is on their assignment
that they create positive penetration upon their contributions and it furthermore
improves the interest of workplace. The Scarlett Surveys at the International level
proposes that management shall realize to control and shape the behavior and
emotional state of employees and managing such perception will cause about affirmative
experience that can simulate the intrinsic wishes for much more work
Other studies previously were performed that covers a broad ranges
of contributors and predictors. Considerable updated studies consists Natti et
al (2011), Prabhakar (2011), Chughtai & Buckley (2011), Saks & Gruman
(2011) with the recent performed by Anaza & Rutherford in 2012. The authors have concentrated on employees’
performance in these studies as a process backed by a wide spectrum of factors which
includes communication, empowerment of decision making and supervisory supports.
Not only the notable compensation
On 2006, Saks in his research proposed that the Social Exchange
Theory (SET) in its theoretical foundation describes the variance level of
performance found in work areas and organization context. According to Kahn’s
1990 definition, the responsibility and obligations by employees in engaging
themselves deeply in their roles within the organization/firms relates on the
resources which they received from their organizations as well. In such a
context, when the organization does not provide supports, it is likely that the
employees withdraw and disengage themselves from their role.
A study previously conducted
by Shahril (2010) on Employee Performance in Malaysia’s Education system. In this
research, he proposed that rewards & recognition, communication, and career
development are determinants towards an increase in Employee Performance. His
findings indicate an affirmative significant relation between Recognition &
Rewards. Employee Performance supported the hypothesis that Recognition & Rewards
are directly and significantly related with Employee Performance. Furthermore, Recognition
& Rewards is a very strong predictor for Employees’ Performance.
This study represents
the effectiveness of goal setting and role benefit on employees’ performance in
an innovative manner. This
research furthermore discloses that there is a clarify relation between
perceived role benefit and employee
The research takes
into considerations the goal setting and role benefit as an independent variable
which connected to employee performance.
These hypotheses are transposed graphically as bellow:
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
efficient goal setting is a driver of individual performance. There was
considerable evidence that suggest employees with high levels of optimism attend
to perform at a higher level than other employees. The evidence also shows that
engaged employees are performing at a higher level compare to those who have
The Designed of Research Framework
This research has designated
a theoretical framework developed from multiple research studies carried out by
Slatten & Mehmetoglu (2011) and Medlin & Green (2009). The base research
framework has been assessed by adding up quite a new preferred variable of Goal
setting and Role benefit. These studies framework hypotheses are significantly related
to the Employee Performance.
All date related to
this research collected from staff of national and international organizations
in Afghanistan which are engaged in the business of Social conservation, Skills
training, banking and agricultural sectors. The employee involvement broadly covers the gender,
age, academic, qualification, job category and total year of work experiences. The questionnaires have
been structured from the past research studies from Slatten & Mehmetoglu
(2011), Medlin & Green Jr (2009), King (2010), Taipale & Selander
(2011),Vanam (2009) and Saks (2006). These questionnaires have been evaluated and
validated its understandability by the authors, but some questions have been
altered and improve some to meet the goals of this research.
The structured survey contains
the two main parts: Part (A), replied background and Part (B), questionnaires
from the sub-section of organization goal setting, role benefit and Employee
Performance. In Section A, respondents have to answer about their
socio-demographic characteristics including age, gender, level of education,
job category and total years of work experience by choosing the right boxes. In Section B, the respondents
have to reply to a seven-point of Likert-type scale for all questionnaires. These measures were hooked
at Strongly Agree (5), Agree (4), Neutral (3) Disagree (2), and
Strongly Disagree (1)
Each item is checked for its reliability (Cronbach Alpha). These items
are further analyzed using descriptive statistics. Multi-Collinearity among the
variables is checked and tested using Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) from
collinearity diagnosis. Step-Wise Multiple Regression technique is used to identify the significant of independent variables
influencing employee performance. The summary reliability results in Table 1
shows that the overall Cronbach Alpha values are above 0.5 for all measures
indicating acceptable internal consistency and reliability.
Goal Setting (Cronbach’s ? = 0.877)
Employees are rewarded
based on the achievement of goals through performance.
I am taught how to set effective goals
All of my goals are specific, measureable, attainable,
realistic and timely
I am given the required tools and support to accomplish my
The management has informed about the company’s vision and goals
(Cronbach’s a = 0.845)
My current job is a
“springboard” for my future career
The job provides me a
good opportunity to display my skills
I know exactly what the
management expects of me
Explanations are completely
clear of what has to be done
I know about all my
responsibilities and obligations
I feel quite certain
regarding how much authority I have
and plans are clear in my job
Performance (Cronbach’s ? = 0.885)
The job I have makes me more enthusiastic and interested
My job carries meaning to me
I like to work intensely and hardly
I often become absorbed in the job I am conducting
My job gives me energy
I persevere and consistent when I encounter challenges and
problems in my job
Characteristics of Interviewee (N=60)
Characteristics of Respondent
Number of Interviewees
20 to 29 years
30 to 39 years
40 to 49 years
50 & above
Years of Experience:
Less than 3 years
3 to 6 years
7 to 10 years
Above 10 years
Data in Table 2, were gathered
from 60 employees as respondent from national, international and governmental
organizations in Kabul, Afghanistan by using of random sampling method. The sample consisted of
33.3% of female and 66.7% of male interviewees. It was covered at the level of
age between 20 to 29 years was 41.6%, 30 to 39 years 33.3%, 40 to 49 years 16.6%
and above 50 years was 8.3% from the total characteristic of age. Moreover, bachelor
degree holders are the highest respondents by 75% followed by masters 16.7% and
diploma 8.3% from the total characteristic of academic qualification and most
of them are from management level by 50%, operation was 33.3% and technical
employees was 16.7%.
Interviewees with the work experiences
from 3 to 6 years had the highest contribution by 33.3% in the random simple
chosen, employees with 6 to 9 years’ experiences had 30% role in the simple, above
10 years 20% and less than 3 years was 16.6%.
In order to analyze collected data regression
analysis method was used to validate the hypothesis framework. The SPSS version
20 was used for data analysis and assessment of this study suggested model
framework. As the reliability test of Cronbach’s Alpha show all variables were
above the scale of 0.5 which indicated sufficiently reliable internal
The results of hypothesis testing reflect
that the independent variables of Goal Setting and Role Benefit positively influence
results of correlation reflecting in Table 3 shows a relative significant
correlation between independent and dependent variables examined.
Correlation Matrix Table-3
X2: Goal Setting
Correlation is significant at 0.01 levels (2-tailed)
Multiple Regression influence on
Adjusted R2 = 0.606 N = 204
Multiple regression results in Table
4, indicate that independent variables are significant predictors of employee performance.
In Table 5, The R Square result is 0.612 that means almost 61% of the variance
of Employee performance accounted by the model.
Table-5 R Square
Adjusted R Square
Std. Error of the Estimate
Predictors: (Constant) Goal Setting, Role Benefit
Variable: Employee Performance
As we selected only two independent
variables in this research, although we can contribute with the other
independent variables such as job autonomy, strategic attention, bonuses &
recognition, motivation, organization resources, support of supervisor & position
characteristic from the past studies.
In this survey we interviewed only
with 60 persons which is a small number of employees working in national,
international and governmental organizations of Social Protection, Skills
training, banking and agricultural sectors in Kabul from around ten thousand employees.
This research attempts to assess the effect of two independents
variables, goal setting and role benefit on employee performance in national,
international and governmental organizations. Once, factor analysis conducted,
it became clear that both antecedents to be evaluate with employee performance.
The research supports the two below hypotheses:
For goal setting, the research reflects a significant
relationship between the goal setting and employee performance, it means employees
with goal setting has a higher level of employee performance compare with those
not given this factor.
For the role benefit, to employees that the trust is given to
do duties, and to achieve a higher level of performance, which finally contribute
to the profit of whole organization
The research reflect that male employees have higher engagement
in the organization activities than female employees. The differences on gender
for all constructs show a higher male variance in comparison with the female
As the research was conducted only in Kabul and just a few employees
selected for interview, the results could not be generalized for the whole of Afghanistan.
It has been reported that employee performance is a major
problem in all, national, international and governmental organizations in
Afghanistan. The objective of this research was to find out the relationship
between the independent variables of Goal Setting and Role Benefit and the
dependent variable of employee performance. In order to determine the
relationship between goal setting and role benefit and dependent variable of
employee performance multiple regression analysis was used.
a result, this research shows below relationship between the two selected independent
variables and the dependent variable of employee performance:
Ø Goal Setting factor has significant
effect on Employee Performance;
Ø Role Benefit factor has significant
effect on Employee Performance;
In conclusion, in order to develop
strategies and plans in relation to employee’s performance and job satisfaction,
the research provides important information to the national, international and
governmental organizations in Afghanistan. The higher the employee satisfaction
from his/her job will increase organization and employee profit and meanwhile, cut
expenses of recruiting new staff. As a result, higher productivity of
organization and lower its expenses will increase the organization benefits and
it will contribute with government income in taxation.
1 Anaza, N. A., & Rutherford, B.
N. (2012). Developing our understanding of patronizing frontline employees. Journal
of Managing Service Quality, 22 (4), 340–358.
2 Chughtai, A. A, & Buckley, F.
(2011). Work performance: antecedents, the mediating role of learning goal
orientation and job performance. Journal of Career Development International, 16
4 Medlin, B., & Green Jr, K. W.
(2009). Enhancing performance through goal setting, performance and optimism.
Journal of Industrial Management & Data Systems, 109 (7), 943–956.
5 Saks, A. M . (2006). Antecedents and
consequences of employee performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (7).
6 Online available at Scarlett Surveys