KARDAN UNIVERSITY Ahmad Shah–––––––––––––– 912-1604083Ferdous Afzali––––––––––––– 912-1604084Qamber Ali Nazari––––––––– 912-1604053Zabihulrahman –––––––––––––– 912-1604075Subject: Problem Solving and Decision MakingLecturer: Prof.Murtaza NiaziClass: Wednesday,Program MBA – Non-business, TermC, Semester 4thTable of ContentsAbstract 3Introduction. 4Literature Review.. 5Hypotheses.
6Methodology. 7Designed of Research Framework.. 7Structured Survey.
. 7Analysis Methods. 7Results. 11Discussion. 13Conclusions. 14References. 15 AbstractEmployee jobproficiency is a major issue in all organizations around the world. For betterunderstanding of all aspects of disobedient of employees within theorganizations, this problem shall be addressed comprehensively.
In thisassignment we determine the preferred of employee performance such as Goal Setting and Role advantage inorganizations. To reach our aim a verification method was used to collect 60feedbacks from staff/employees of various organizations working in national orinternational organizations in Kabul. The payoff/outcome of analysis indicatesgreat results in which Goal Setting andRole Benefit has considerable impacts on employee performance at all levelof industrial sectors, national and international organizations. The studyrepresents considerable pattern to contribute with those organizations whichare in developing of their strategies for the personal development so that toenhance effectiveness and efficiency. Organizations may prevent high costs inhiring new employees. Keywords: Employee Performance, GoalSetting, Role Benefit, in Private Sector in Afghanistan.IntroductionEmployeeperformance/proficiency has obtained a major value of consideration duringprevious decades on business compression also among consultancy companies andthe experts’ communities.
They claim employee performance is a recent practicein the field of human resource that industries and firms could utilize it tothe extent that understand all aspects of disobedient industries. Whatsoever, on the academic atmosphere, this sense appearsquite recent, and hence, the concept needs difficult initial studies to validateit. Withconsideration of the applicability of work performance, this recently availableresearch evidences have been developed.
There have been questions like; how theproficiency can be increased and why? It will be fruitful to individuals,organizations and firms to answer questions like these.The current researchgoal is to determine employee/staff performance through introducing goalsetting and role benefit which will further lead to increase employees’performance.This research representsemployee’s performance in national and international organization and at themeanwhile in governmental organization in Afghanistan. In likeness with thepurpose and goal of the study, 4 hypotheses were suggested based on manytheories: Kahn’s three psychological conditions theory, job demands-resourcesmodel, social exchange theory, and conservation of resources theory. Given thatemployee performance is an important current topic for most of organizations, thedetection will furnish a clear picture of how employee performance will drive awaythe overall efficiency and interests of an organizations/firms.Literature ReviewStaff efficiency is a managerial significance and conceptuality whichdetermines how initiated and aspiring a staff/employee is on their assignmentthat they create positive penetration upon their contributions and it furthermoreimproves the interest of workplace. The Scarlett Surveys at the International levelproposes that management shall realize to control and shape the behavior andemotional state of employees and managing such perception will cause about affirmativeexperience that can simulate the intrinsic wishes for much more workperformances.Other studies previously were performed that covers a broad rangesof contributors and predictors.
Considerable updated studies consists Natti etal (2011), Prabhakar (2011), Chughtai & Buckley (2011), Saks & Gruman(2011) with the recent performed by Anaza & Rutherford in 2012. The authors have concentrated on employees’performance in these studies as a process backed by a wide spectrum of factors whichincludes communication, empowerment of decision making and supervisory supports. Not only the notable compensationfactors. On 2006, Saks in his research proposed that the Social ExchangeTheory (SET) in its theoretical foundation describes the variance level ofperformance found in work areas and organization context. According to Kahn’s1990 definition, the responsibility and obligations by employees in engagingthemselves deeply in their roles within the organization/firms relates on theresources which they received from their organizations as well. In such acontext, when the organization does not provide supports, it is likely that theemployees withdraw and disengage themselves from their role.
A study previously conductedby Shahril (2010) on Employee Performance in Malaysia’s Education system. In thisresearch, he proposed that rewards & recognition, communication, and careerdevelopment are determinants towards an increase in Employee Performance. Hisfindings indicate an affirmative significant relation between Recognition . Employee Performance supported the hypothesis that Recognition & Rewardsare directly and significantly related with Employee Performance. Furthermore, Recognition& Rewards is a very strong predictor for Employees’ Performance.HypothesesThis study representsthe effectiveness of goal setting and role benefit on employees’ performance inan innovative manner.
Thisresearch furthermore discloses that there is a clarify relation betweenperceived role benefit and employeeperformance.The research takesinto considerations the goal setting and role benefit as an independent variablewhich connected to employee performance.These hypotheses are transposed graphically as bellow: Independent Variable Dependent Variable Effective andefficient goal setting is a driver of individual performance. There wasconsiderable evidence that suggest employees with high levels of optimism attendto perform at a higher level than other employees. The evidence also shows thatengaged employees are performing at a higher level compare to those who havenot engaged/involved.MethodologyThe Designed of Research FrameworkThis research has designateda theoretical framework developed from multiple research studies carried out bySlatten & Mehmetoglu (2011) and Medlin & Green (2009). The base researchframework has been assessed by adding up quite a new preferred variable of Goalsetting and Role benefit. These studies framework hypotheses are significantly relatedto the Employee Performance.
StructuredSurveyAll date related tothis research collected from staff of national and international organizationsin Afghanistan which are engaged in the business of Social conservation, Skillstraining, banking and agricultural sectors. The employee involvement broadly covers the gender,age, academic, qualification, job category and total year of work experiences. The questionnaires havebeen structured from the past research studies from Slatten & Mehmetoglu(2011), Medlin & Green Jr (2009), King (2010), Taipale & Selander(2011),Vanam (2009) and Saks (2006). These questionnaires have been evaluated andvalidated its understandability by the authors, but some questions have beenaltered and improve some to meet the goals of this research.The structured survey containsthe two main parts: Part (A), replied background and Part (B), questionnairesfrom the sub-section of organization goal setting, role benefit and EmployeePerformance. In Section A, respondents have to answer about theirsocio-demographic characteristics including age, gender, level of education,job category and total years of work experience by choosing the right boxes.
In Section B, the respondentshave to reply to a seven-point of Likert-type scale for all questionnaires. These measures were hookedat Strongly Agree (5), Agree (4), Neutral (3) Disagree (2), andStrongly Disagree (1)AnalysisMethodsEach item is checked for its reliability (Cronbach Alpha). These itemsare further analyzed using descriptive statistics. Multi-Collinearity among thevariables is checked and tested using Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) fromcollinearity diagnosis.
Step-Wise Multiple Regression technique is used to identify the significant of independent variablesinfluencing employee performance. The summary reliability results in Table 1shows that the overall Cronbach Alpha values are above 0.5 for all measuresindicating acceptable internal consistency and reliability. Goal Setting (Cronbach’s ? = 0.
877) No. Question Yes No Don’t know 1 Employees are rewarded based on the achievement of goals through performance. 2 I am taught how to set effective goals 3 All of my goals are specific, measureable, attainable, realistic and timely 4 I am given the required tools and support to accomplish my goals 5 The management has informed about the company’s vision and goals Role Benefit(Cronbach’s a = 0.845) No. Question Yes No 1 My current job is a “springboard” for my future career 2 The job provides me a good opportunity to display my skills 3 I know exactly what the management expects of me 4 Explanations are completely clear of what has to be done 5 I know about all my responsibilities and obligations 6 I feel quite certain regarding how much authority I have 7 Goals, objectives and plans are clear in my job Performance (Cronbach’s ? = 0.885) No. Question Yes No 1 The job I have makes me more enthusiastic and interested 2 My job carries meaning to me 3 I like to work intensely and hardly 4 I often become absorbed in the job I am conducting 5 My job gives me energy 6 I persevere and consistent when I encounter challenges and problems in my job Characteristics of Interviewee (N=60)Table-2 Characteristics of Respondent Number of Interviewees Percentage Gender: Male 40 66.
7% Female 20 33.3% Age: 20 to 29 years 25 41.6% 30 to 39 years 20 33.3% 40 to 49 years 10 16.6% 50 & above 5 8.
3% Education: Diploma 5 8.3% Bachelor 45 75% Master 10 16.6% Job Category: Technical 10 16.6% Operation 20 33.3% Management 30 50% Years of Experience: Less than 3 years 10 16.
6% 3 to 6 years 20 33.3% 7 to 10 years 18 30% Above 10 years 12 20% ResultsData in Table 2, were gatheredfrom 60 employees as respondent from national, international and governmentalorganizations in Kabul, Afghanistan by using of random sampling method. The sample consisted of33.3% of female and 66.7% of male interviewees. It was covered at the level ofage between 20 to 29 years was 41.
6%, 30 to 39 years 33.3%, 40 to 49 years 16.6%and above 50 years was 8.
3% from the total characteristic of age. Moreover, bachelordegree holders are the highest respondents by 75% followed by masters 16.7% anddiploma 8.3% from the total characteristic of academic qualification and mostof them are from management level by 50%, operation was 33.3% and technicalemployees was 16.7%.Interviewees with the work experiencesfrom 3 to 6 years had the highest contribution by 33.3% in the random simplechosen, employees with 6 to 9 years’ experiences had 30% role in the simple, above10 years 20% and less than 3 years was 16.
6%.In order to analyze collected data regressionanalysis method was used to validate the hypothesis framework. The SPSS version20 was used for data analysis and assessment of this study suggested modelframework. As the reliability test of Cronbach’s Alpha show all variables wereabove the scale of 0.5 which indicated sufficiently reliable internalconsistency.
The results of hypothesis testing reflectthat the independent variables of Goal Setting and Role Benefit positively influenceEmployee Performance.Theresults of correlation reflecting in Table 3 shows a relative significantcorrelation between independent and dependent variables examined.Correlation Matrix Table-3 Variable Name Y1 X1 X2 Y1: Employee Performance 1.00 0.217** 0.704** X1: Role Benefit 0.217** 1.
00 0.740 X2: Goal Setting 0.704** 1.00 **.Correlation is significant at 0.01 levels (2-tailed)Multiple Regression influence onEmployee PerformanceTable-4 Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF Constant 4.
791 0.036 133.502 0.
00 Role Benefit 0.177 0.036 0.217 4.927 0.00 1.
000 1.000 Goal Setting 0.575 0.036 0.704 15.991 0.
00 1.000 1.000 Adjusted R2 = 0.606 N = 204Multiple regression results in Table4, indicate that independent variables are significant predictors of employee performance.In Table 5, The R Square result is 0.612 that means almost 61% of the varianceof Employee performance accounted by the model.
Table-5 R Square Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 0.782 0.612 0.606 0.
51255 Predictors: (Constant) Goal Setting, Role Benefit Dependent Variable: Employee Performance As we selected only two independentvariables in this research, although we can contribute with the otherindependent variables such as job autonomy, strategic attention, bonuses &recognition, motivation, organization resources, support of supervisor & positioncharacteristic from the past studies.In this survey we interviewed onlywith 60 persons which is a small number of employees working in national,international and governmental organizations of Social Protection, Skillstraining, banking and agricultural sectors in Kabul from around ten thousand employees.DiscussionThis research attempts to assess the effect of two independentsvariables, goal setting and role benefit on employee performance in national,international and governmental organizations. Once, factor analysis conducted,it became clear that both antecedents to be evaluate with employee performance.The research supports the two below hypotheses:1) For goal setting, the research reflects a significantrelationship between the goal setting and employee performance, it means employeeswith goal setting has a higher level of employee performance compare with thosenot given this factor.2) For the role benefit, to employees that the trust is given todo duties, and to achieve a higher level of performance, which finally contributeto the profit of whole organizationThe research reflect that male employees have higher engagementin the organization activities than female employees. The differences on genderfor all constructs show a higher male variance in comparison with the femaleemployees.
As the research was conducted only in Kabul and just a few employeesselected for interview, the results could not be generalized for the whole of Afghanistan.ConclusionIt has been reported that employee performance is a majorproblem in all, national, international and governmental organizations inAfghanistan. The objective of this research was to find out the relationshipbetween the independent variables of Goal Setting and Role Benefit and thedependent variable of employee performance. In order to determine therelationship between goal setting and role benefit and dependent variable ofemployee performance multiple regression analysis was used.
Asa result, this research shows below relationship between the two selected independentvariables and the dependent variable of employee performance: Ø Goal Setting factor has significanteffect on Employee Performance;Ø Role Benefit factor has significanteffect on Employee Performance;In conclusion, in order to developstrategies and plans in relation to employee’s performance and job satisfaction,the research provides important information to the national, international andgovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. The higher the employee satisfactionfrom his/her job will increase organization and employee profit and meanwhile, cutexpenses of recruiting new staff. As a result, higher productivity oforganization and lower its expenses will increase the organization benefits andit will contribute with government income in taxation.References1 Anaza, N. A., & Rutherford, B.N. (2012).
Developing our understanding of patronizing frontline employees. Journalof Managing Service Quality, 22 (4), 340–358.2 Chughtai, A. A, & Buckley, F.
(2011). Work performance: antecedents, the mediating role of learning goalorientation and job performance. Journal of Career Development International, 16(7), 684–705.4 Medlin, B., & Green Jr, K. W.(2009). Enhancing performance through goal setting, performance and optimism.
Journal of Industrial Management & Data Systems, 109 (7), 943–956.5 Saks, A. M . (2006). Antecedents andconsequences of employee performance.
Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (7).6 Online available at Scarlett SurveysInternational, http://www.scarlettsurveys.com/.