Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of ArchitectureMIM 425E CRN:12906 – Architecture TodayYrd.Doç.Dr. Mehmet Emin ?algamc?o?luEmre Da?tan – 020110197 Globalization effect in Contemporary Verticaland Horizontal Architecture related with Social Perspective in IndiaAbstract: Massive transformations in the builtenvironment on India’s landscape became more visible with the liberalization ofthe Indian economy since the mid 1990s.
With opening up the design andconstruction sector to global world, architecture in India experienced newforces of international design firms that want to have an influence on thecountry’s architectural scene. The process of economic liberalization waspreceded by social integration problems in previous decades, on issues ofclass, caste and social mobility and resolution of this social issues wascritical in setting the foundation for the liberalization of India’s economy.Once the political system settled these concerns, it shifted its emphasis toeconomic integration. Consequently, India saw significant investment in infrastructureand acceleration on physical development in the early 2000s that thearchitecture emerged as a visible manifestation of this process.Key Words: Indianarchitecture, infrastructure projects, housing schemes forupper and middle classes, high end luxury apartments and hotels, hospitals andshopping malls, and master planning for large scale townships and specialeconomic zones in India, India’seconomy.
? ?? In today’s India, there is a rapidlygrowing economically mobile middle class that results conctructions of newlandscapes. The architecture results from this phenomenon often displays a completedetachment from its local environment, the place and the community in which itis set. Moreover, its quality and material choice is often unmindful of localresources and traditions in this examples. They are architectural productionswhich are usually a quick response to large-scale infrastructure projects (suchas housing, hospitals, schools, colleges and commercial development) The designservices for these projects are often choosed from Western firms that are wellexperienced in configuring global buildings, using new materials andtechnologies. From 1940s to 1980s, mostarchitectural practises in India focused on modest building commisions becausethe private sector was in a construction activity of a limited scale. With theresult of this, private enterprise never engaged in large scale architectureand the market of it did not exist untill after 1990s, when a liberalisedeconomy came. Before that, “the big firm culture” had not arrived in India.International firms from Singapore, United States and some parts of Europe havecome to command the largest share of large scale infrastructure projects inIndia.
These projects range from housing schemes for upper and middle classesto high end luxury apartments and hotels, hospitals and shopping malls, andmaster planning for large scale townships and special economic zones. Morerecently, the most representative and visible projects are InformationTechnology (IT) parks set up outside growing IT cities. Cyberabad in Hyderabad,Electronic City in Bengaluru and Tech Park in Chennai are good examples of suchdevelopment. With Good and stable infrastructure provided in this IT parks,they became a home for multinational global companies, with globalarchitecture. Zaha Hadid Architects’ India Land and Property Limited Project inChennai (2006-present), FXFOWLE’s Software Technology Park in Noida(2008-present), Pei Cobb Freed & Partners’ Wave Rock in Hyderabad(2006-2010) and an Indian architect Hafeez Contractor’s recent work forNational Institute of Fashion Technology building in Navi Mumbai (2005) are theexamples of globalization effect landing on the ground as alien objects.
Theseare designed, crafted and engineered with completely Western sensibilites andthey represent the impotency of global architecture. Steel, glass and severalprefabricated cladding products, not manufactured in India in the 1990s but nowavailable create new expressions that are attractive for investors; however theinefficient response to basic paramaters such as climate, light and airflows,as well as the use of energy-unfriendly materials such as metal and glasscladding, make them uneconomical and unsustainable propositions. On the otherhand, their power lies in their ability to represent the power of capital, thusthey serve as an iconic beacons for investment in new terrains. The buildingsin IT parks in Bengalaru, Hyderabad,Gurgaon and Mumbai demonstrate an incredible skill for international-standard building artefacts inthe Indian context, which is largely dominated by labour-intensive constructionprocesses. In fact, the malls reconfigures the landscape completely based on animagined economic condition in country. The practices challenge constructionnorms and traditions and there is usually a disjuncture with the context alienprocesses and forms.Another programme that demonstrates the samecharacteristics in the way onto the landscape is the luxury hotel.
They areoften drived by brands or chain hotel corporations, these buildings exert theiruninhibited presences in the form of large scale structures. They also need noreality check from the locale and are insulated and gated enclaves that areoften designed to isolate the tourist or business traveler from the realitiesof the neighbourhood. Several buildings are being constructed across India atas rapid a rate as the growth of the economy and the increase of traffic of businesstravelers and tourists. Located generally in the boomtowns of India, such asMumbai, New Delhi, Gurgaon, Hyderabad, Bengaluru and Chennai, these buildingsput great premium on efficient functioning and interiors without any investmentin the exterior form or their configuration in the city urbanistically. ThePark Group of Hotels’ buildings have set an interesting precedent that willchallenge the multinational hotel chains in Kolkata, Navi Mumbai and Chennai.
On the other hand, other infrastructure related projects such as new airports,educational institutes and housing estates are subject to greater realitychecks from the locale and tend to become more culturally specific. Socialnorms, densities of occupation and many other related aspects must benegotiated in these projects, unlike the autonomous nature of IT parks andoffice buildings. Airports, have to accommodate spatial innovation to respondto teeming crowds that accompany passengers in arrival and departure loungesfrom traditional ceremonies that are still the social norm in the country. Theyconfront a high level of resistance due to the fact that they are oftenextensions to, or renewals of existing airports. Adaptations and transitionsbetween old and new evolve naturally, and the global solutions are modified andlocalized quickly.
The retrofitted Mumbai domestic airport designed byarchitect Hafeez Contractor and DV Joshi &Co. (2006-2008), the IndiraGandhi International Airport, Terminal 3 in New Delhi (2006-2010) designed by HOK,Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Terminal 2 in Mumbai by Skidmore,Owings & Merrill (SOM) (2014), THE Chenai, Raipur and Vadodara airportsdesigned by Frederic Schwartz Architects integrates responses to socialconditions but struggle to be more sensitive to their orientation, siting andissues of sustainable design parameters.The Indian government used liberalized economy for itsfinancial institutions, such as ICIC and LIC (Life Insurance Corporation ofIndia) across the country as well as for state capitals in the past.
The TamilNadu Legislative Assembly building (2008-2010) designed by the Berlin based gmparchitects. The domed capping of this building bears a resemblance to theReichstag dome, moreover its imagery is removed from any reference to thecultural mileu in which it is set. Instead, it boasts of energy efficiency andthe integration of sustainable design principles as its driving logic. Similarly,the housing sector is in a situation which one of global flows have caused often irreversibledestruction of landscapes in many of India’s urban centres due to thegovernment’s clear failure to deliver housing, or the conditions