Istanbul the architecture emerged as a visible manifestation of

Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture

MIM 425E CRN:12906 – Architecture Today

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Yrd.Doç.Dr. Mehmet Emin ?algamc?o?lu

Emre Da?tan – 020110197

 

Globalization effect in Contemporary Vertical
and Horizontal Architecture related with Social Perspective in India

Abstract: Massive transformations in the built
environment on India’s landscape became more visible with the liberalization of
the Indian economy since the mid 1990s. With opening up the design and
construction sector to global world, architecture in India experienced new
forces of international design firms that want to have an influence on the
country’s architectural scene. The process of economic liberalization was
preceded by social integration problems in previous decades, on issues of
class, caste and social mobility and resolution of this social issues was
critical in setting the foundation for the liberalization of India’s economy.
Once the political system settled these concerns, it shifted its emphasis to
economic integration. Consequently, India saw significant investment in infrastructure
and acceleration on physical development in the early 2000s that the
architecture emerged as a visible manifestation of this process.

Key Words: Indian
architecture, infrastructure projects, housing schemes for
upper and middle classes, high end luxury apartments and hotels, hospitals and
shopping malls, and master planning for large scale townships and special
economic zones in India, India’s
economy.

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            In today’s India, there is a rapidly
growing economically mobile middle class that results conctructions of new
landscapes. The architecture results from this phenomenon often displays a complete
detachment from its local environment, the place and the community in which it
is set. Moreover, its quality and material choice is often unmindful of local
resources and traditions in this examples. They are architectural productions
which are usually a quick response to large-scale infrastructure projects (such
as housing, hospitals, schools, colleges and commercial development) The design
services for these projects are often choosed from Western firms that are well
experienced in configuring global buildings, using new materials and
technologies.

            From 1940s to 1980s, most
architectural practises in India focused on modest building commisions because
the private sector was in a construction activity of a limited scale. With the
result of this, private enterprise never engaged in large scale architecture
and the market of it did not exist untill after 1990s, when a liberalised
economy came. Before that, “the big firm culture” had not arrived in India.
International firms from Singapore, United States and some parts of Europe have
come to command the largest share of large scale infrastructure projects in
India. These projects range from housing schemes for upper and middle classes
to high end luxury apartments and hotels, hospitals and shopping malls, and
master planning for large scale townships and special economic zones. More
recently, the most representative and visible projects are Information
Technology (IT) parks set up outside growing IT cities. Cyberabad in Hyderabad,
Electronic City in Bengaluru and Tech Park in Chennai are good examples of such
development. With Good and stable infrastructure provided in this IT parks,
they became a home for multinational global companies, with global
architecture. Zaha Hadid Architects’ India Land and Property Limited Project in
Chennai (2006-present), FXFOWLE’s Software Technology Park in Noida
(2008-present), Pei Cobb Freed & Partners’ Wave Rock in Hyderabad
(2006-2010) and an Indian architect Hafeez Contractor’s recent work for
National Institute of Fashion Technology building in Navi Mumbai (2005) are the
examples of globalization effect landing on the ground as alien objects. These
are designed, crafted and engineered with completely Western sensibilites and
they represent the impotency of global architecture. Steel, glass and several
prefabricated cladding products, not manufactured in India in the 1990s but now
available create new expressions that are attractive for investors; however the
inefficient response to basic paramaters such as climate, light and airflows,
as well as the use of energy-unfriendly materials such as metal and glass
cladding, make them uneconomical and unsustainable propositions. On the other
hand, their power lies in their ability to represent the power of capital, thus
they serve as an iconic beacons for investment in new terrains. The buildings
in IT parks  in Bengalaru, Hyderabad,
Gurgaon and Mumbai demonstrate an incredible skill for  international-standard building artefacts in
the Indian context, which is largely dominated by labour-intensive construction
processes. In fact, the malls reconfigures the landscape completely based on an
imagined economic condition in country. The practices challenge construction
norms and traditions and there is usually a disjuncture with the context alien
processes and forms.

Another programme that demonstrates the same
characteristics in the way onto the landscape is the luxury hotel. They are
often drived by brands or chain hotel corporations, these buildings exert their
uninhibited presences in the form of large scale structures. They also need no
reality check from the locale and are insulated and gated enclaves that are
often designed to isolate the tourist or business traveler from the realities
of the neighbourhood. Several buildings are being constructed across India at
as rapid a rate as the growth of the economy and the increase of traffic of business
travelers and tourists. Located generally in the boomtowns of India, such as
Mumbai, New Delhi, Gurgaon, Hyderabad, Bengaluru and Chennai, these buildings
put great premium on efficient functioning and interiors without any investment
in the exterior form or their configuration in the city urbanistically. The
Park Group of Hotels’ buildings have set an interesting precedent that will
challenge the multinational hotel chains in Kolkata, Navi Mumbai and Chennai.
On the other hand, other infrastructure related projects such as new airports,
educational institutes and housing estates are subject to greater reality
checks from the locale and tend to become more culturally specific. Social
norms, densities of occupation and many other related aspects must be
negotiated in these projects, unlike the autonomous nature of IT parks and
office buildings. Airports, have to accommodate spatial innovation to respond
to teeming crowds that accompany passengers in arrival and departure lounges
from traditional ceremonies that are still the social norm in the country. They
confront a high level of resistance due to the fact that they are often
extensions to, or renewals of existing airports. Adaptations and transitions
between old and new evolve naturally, and the global solutions are modified and
localized quickly. The retrofitted Mumbai domestic airport designed by
architect Hafeez Contractor and DV Joshi &Co. (2006-2008), the Indira
Gandhi International Airport, Terminal 3 in New Delhi (2006-2010) designed by HOK,
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Terminal 2 in Mumbai by Skidmore,
Owings & Merrill (SOM) (2014), THE Chenai, Raipur and Vadodara airports
designed by Frederic Schwartz Architects integrates responses to social
conditions but struggle to be more sensitive to their orientation, siting and
issues of sustainable design parameters.

The Indian government used liberalized economy for its
financial institutions, such as ICIC and LIC (Life Insurance Corporation of
India) across the country as well as for state capitals in the past. The Tamil
Nadu Legislative Assembly building (2008-2010) designed by the Berlin based gmp
architects. The domed capping of this building bears a resemblance to the
Reichstag dome, moreover its imagery is removed from any reference to the
cultural mileu in which it is set. Instead, it boasts of energy efficiency and
the integration of sustainable design principles as its driving logic. Similarly,
the housing sector is in a situation which one of  global flows have caused often irreversible
destruction of landscapes in many of India’s urban centres due to the
government’s clear failure to deliver housing, or the conditions