Introduction:Internet of consumers and the economic. Perhaps the Germans

Introduction:Internet is becoming a useful tool for business transaction, communication and providing information.

(Swaminathan, Lepkowska-White, & Rao, 1999)***lincolnIt offers wide range of products and services. (Keeney, 1999)**lincolnThe use of e-commerce is growing significantly and this growth is due to the availability of technology and the development of infrastructure (Kau et al., 2003).

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 Many businesses have moved to using online marketing solutions as they have found it the easiest way to reach customers. On the other hands, online business companies still experience challenges and obstacles in the way they conduct their business in the same way as physical businesses encounter them marketing. So far, however, recent studies revealed that many of these challenges are linked to problems with consumer trust. Consumers still pause and think  carefully before clicking ‘buy’ button due to trust issue. Perhaps establishing a trustworthy online brands is a solution to increase the online participants. As it is believed that branding is a symbol of reassurance. The level of trust can be varied. Many research has been done taking trust in branding into consideration in establishing brands ignoring the cultural background factor.

It could be that building trustworthy brands is varied from culture to another. this research will consider the implications of culture in branding online shopping decsion such the cultural background, the income level of consumers and the economic. Perhaps the Germans who are from foreign background would shop online more than white German vice versa. It could be that some cultures are willing to submit their online details while others are reluctant. It might be that people who are well educated shop more often than average people. Probably elderly prefer shop in-store.

This research aims to determine to what extent culture impacts on online shopping. The questionnaire is going to be designed based on the cultural background, educational level, income level, and age. Understanding the cultural behaviour in online shopping as well as branding views would benefit companies so they can target certain customers and increase their online sales.

They can customize certain products for certain consumers. Research Questions and Objectives:The objectives of this research are to investigate to what extent the trust in branding taking culture have impact on the customer decision to shop online. Could trust in branding and culture affect  the customer behaviour towards online shopping.

This project will examine whether can the  trust in branding be a barrier or a driver to shop online and are there any factors which might impact the trust. There are many variables that influence customers to shop online. However,those three elements trust in branding and culture are introduced in this research as factors that influence customer to shop online based on the online shopping literature that have been published about online shopping so far.Trust is broad and general topic. In this research trust refers trust from branding perspective customers are concerned  about privacy and security to the customer trust to give out their personal details to that websites. Many customers skeptical towards online shopping because they do not know how their data are going to be handled. By addressing trust in branding and culture questions below as a factors that of online shopping would benefit the customers and organisations alike.

There are many aspects that have impacts on trust generally, such as personal experience culture and what other companiesUnderstanding the dynamic of trust from branding perspective and its impact on online shopping and questioning how online trust from branding perspective would affect people would be crucial for people and organisations. Diagnosing these problems in order to find solutions would encourage customers to participate in online shopping and help online companies to rebrand themselves grow their e businesses.

Furthermore, companies could be interested in this research to be aware of these barriers before entering a market to avoid disappointment and failure in the future. As it is stated, it could be that young Americans prefer shopping in store rather than online, UK customers might prefer shopping online more than the physical stores, or Middle Easterners prefer to shop online out of their region. Research Questions:To what extent cultural background trust in online branding could affect online shopping. Would solving trust in branding issue make people more willing to participate in online shopping.Are there any variables that influence trust  in online shopping such as branding, culture, security etc would solving one element encourage people to buy more regardless without satisfying the other.

What issues that need to be taken into consideration when online companies enter a new country. Would establishing branding increase trust and decrease the risk perceived by consumers.To extent do consumers trust online branding. Are they willing to participate more ifHow important is branding in online shopping.What are the  factors influence online shopping. To what extent Trust, branding and culture influence customers to shop onlineIs there a relationship among those variables?How trust in brands Do online shopping vary by cultural background,  age and gender,level of education and income.Do the trust in branding also vary by cultural backgroundInvestigate the relationship between cultural behavior on online shopping. The relationship between culture and online shopping behavior in Europe.

Background: There are many factors that influence consumers decision to shop online. However, this research is focused only on trust in branding and culture. However, not much literature has been done addressing culture as a as a factor that influence to shop online. whereas, tBranding and trust are independent variables and the culture is going to be the dependent variable. It there are relationship between trust in online shopping and cultures, branding and cultures. Are people from different background.

Culture is going to be a depent variables while branding and trust is going to be independent factor.Limitations and weakness: Culture: (Dawar & Parker, 1994; Triandis, 1995) define culture as the beliefs, values, norms of a specific location group. Culture influences customers decision and behaviour (Engelen & Brettel, 2011).The importance of culture:Understanding Cultural differences is essential in business. corporations have to give a thought to cultural behavior in rebranding their online business. In some cultures gaining consumer trust is quicker than other cultures.

consequently their participation in online shopping is higher. Therefore, establishing a trustworthy brands could be quicker as well. Understanding those differences is vital for the Organisations so they can tailor their online products and services according to their cultural responds towards online shopping or online branding.On the other hand, some cultures still reluctant towards online shopping.

 Therefore, However, they access online shopping websites only to collect information about the product then purchase it from the physical store (Sorce, Perotti, & Widrick, 2005). Nevertheless, those are potential customers, organizations should understand the cultural behaviour beyond that actions,  brand themselves to gain their trust and finish the online transaction.  One study by (Sorce, Perotti, & Widrick, 2005) examined the the attitude and age differences in online buying behaviour and their attitudes towards online shopping. The findings of that studies conclude that older online shoppers are looking for a product online without buying it because they still insecure towards online shopping. Nonetheless the limitation of that study is outdated. It was  conducted in (2005). The sample size was limited to the University campus only 300 staff and students.

This study ignored the educational background and level of income. It is has been done in the University Campus which indicates that the educational level is relatively high. This study would have been much more interesting if it had covered a wider geographic locations  It is restricted to the location in the in the USA. Perhaps Americans are willing to shop online more than Europeans or other nationalities. (Wu, 2003) holds the view that the age and educational background are vital in shaping cultural behaviour towards online shopping. Culture is a principal determining factor for online buying decision.

There is an agreement that cultural and educational background are variables influence online shopping behaviour.,  Bellman et al. (1999) identify in their research the demographic factors that influence  online shopping such as income, the educational background and the age. (Modahl, 2000) states that race and gender have impact on consumer decision for buying online.  cultural factors that influence on consumer shopping behavior such as the gender.  A  study done by (Dennis et al., 2010) compared the shopping behaviour based on gender.

It showed  a surprising result, the study found that male shop more than female online. 22% of male use buy online while only 14% of female shop online. However, the sample was small, only 30 male and 30 female in the UK.

This study might have been more convincing if it covered bigger random sample size. However, this research is going to take the educational background, race and the income into account as well as how online brands is viewed by customers. Branding:Bergstrom (2000)br define branding as” functional attributes are those things  that are tangible, such as performance, quality and price”There is a link between branding and trust whether it is an online trust or offline trust. Most Customers trust brands. (Carpenter, 200, cite br) argues that establishing premair online brands is crucial.

The normal internet users are tensed and stressed out due to the  the rapid growth of online shopping websites. Customers tend to choose familiar sites as it is believed that it is trusted.There is not much literature on online branding.

Branding is essential in the virtual world. It has a strong effect on consumers purchasing decision. The risk is could be reduced through experiencing the brand and improve the long term relationship with customers. Moreover, there are similarity between online and offline  Rowley (2004)br  holds the views that is not easy to spot the  differences between online branding and offline branding. Christodoulides and De Chernatony (2004) and Okazaki (2006) br argue that e-branding is different and more complex.

Customers are not sure how their personal information would be used. The risk could be that the items would not be delivered or it would be damaged or not on times.that there are many types of risks (Beardon and Mason, 1978)oxb  note that there are many types of risks.

It i could be financially, socially. There is a risk perceived in online interaction. In order to finish the online shopping transaction personal information  and banking details should be entered in the website. However, Jøsang, Ismail and Boyd  br(2007) outline this online experience as  risk perceived as risk of prior performance. Perhaps trust in a brand influences customers behaviour.

It could be that establishing online brand would solve the risk and increasing the online participants. Online customers consider (Taylor, 1974; Prendergast et al, 201 OXBIn order to avoid  risks, Customers seek more information about the website. Furthermore,Brands are subconsciously considered by customers in their online purchasing behaviour   (Mitchell, 1999) The notion that trust in a brand influences online consumer behaviour by reducing perceived risk which leads to consumers committing to purchasing online De Chernatony and Riley 1998: 421Customers are not reluctant to give out their personal information or banking details online to  a familiar brands such as Adidas etc (ref)A considerable amount of literature has been done addressing the trust in offline market.

However, there are some studies that have been published that indicate the role of trust in online environment. This report relies on the secondary data that will be collected from different academic journals. There are different strategies that should be followed to create online branding. Some online brands already have physical stores such as Adidas, Nike. they have to adopt different strategy to position themselves online.  Since there is no physical stores  such as Amazon branding would be different.

(Raman & Leckenby cited in Baltas 2003: 505). Banners advertisements. Website design is important thing in the e-branding. Silk et al. (2001) br suggested that the website itself the way of of communication between the brand and their potential clients.Trust:Most literature failed to define trust in online shopping.  Javadi et al. (2012) conducted a research on online shopping.

 Javadi et al. (2012)  Indicates the importance of online shopping experience by comparing it to the offline experience. Javadi et al. (2012) claimed that  when potential customers are in need for items or services, they access to the internet and search for need related data in order to buy a certain items. After buying the items online, the transactions is completed, then the online shoppers evaluates the online shopping experience and compare it to the in store shopping experience. (Kim et al., 2009) have Addressed timing in their study during online shopping transaction.(Kim et al.

, 2009) suggests that the disadvantages of shopping online is that online customers have to wait a few days for delivery to receive the items. Whereas shopping in store customers just pick up the items.  (Bellman et al., 1999; Rohm & Swaminathan, 2004; Punj, 2012)***lincoln paper** argued that shopping online would not take long time comparing to shopping  in stores due to the physical activities that should be done in order to complete the check out. Such as walking in or driving to the stores,  finding parking lot, queuing to pay for the items . etc However, some stores offer new features such as buying the product online and collect the item from store to the that shopping. Along with, a  paper has been published by Shumaila Y.

Yousafzai (2003). Highlight the importance of trust in online business in the banking sector. This paper gives a detailed explanation of understanding the dynamic of trust in the banking sector. Nevertheless, this paper this out of date.

It has been more than ten years. Online business is changing significantly everyday. Furthermore, Luo, Ba, Zhang, (2012) have published a research that describes the relationship between website design and trust.

It has been found that well-designed website plays a major role in trust and brand recognition. It  influence people’s decision in online shopping. Jayoung Choi (2004) conduct a comparison study between online shopping in South Korea and the United States. This research concentrated on the intention on online shopping and the impact of cultural values on customer’s decision. However, the major drawback of the study is the sample was restricted on just university students from both countries. The finding of this study would have been different if people from other social classes such as workers, teachers, employees, business owners etc  would have been taken into consideration. Moreover, Rudolph, Rosenbloom, Wagner (2004) lists the barrier of online shopping in Switzerland.

This paper divided the barriers based on functional barriers and psychological barriers in e-shopping. However, the sample size is limited in Switzerland. Perhaps, different barriers  and drivers might appear or disappear in other countries. (Bauman, 2016) published a recent qualitative study about the online trust. It is a comparison study about shoppers in the USA, Germany, and Russia  In this comprehensive study Bauman (2016) was able to compare how consumers perceive trust across three different cultures.

 Bauman (2016) was able to identify the link between trust and cultures in his paper. Furthermore, Bauman (2016) clarify the website elements and features that customers were able to observe as trust cue. One of the limitations of Bauman (2016) study is that the online shoppers participants of the research just browsed commercial websites without entering their personal information. So the online transaction is not completed. There are level of transactions such as entering the bank details, time delivery etc. This study fails to explain the risk perceived from security perspective while only just focus on trust and culture in online shopping. Moreover, the range age of the participants was 18.

25 which is limited and focused only on young people. Previous studies have linked trust to branding, culture, security and web designed. Methodology: Primary quantitative data collection will be employed in this study. In order to achieve the objective of this research, questionnaire survey will be conducted.Questionnaire survey is one the most well-known tools that is used for assessing quantitative data collection. It has been widely used in business research and social science fields. A major advantage of Questionnaire survey is that inexpensive and effective (Hakim, 1992). Furthermore, it can reach to a large numbers of people.

It can also be spread across a wide geographic addition, this approach can collect information from different countries. It gains a detailed understanding of the barrier and the driver of online shopping based on countries.

The data will  be collected from internet users in Europe such as Germany and UK and the Middle East in the UAE in February, and March 2018. The Questions will be designed in English, German and Arabic languages. The nationality of the participants will be Pre test Group:In order to determine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire pre test is handful to identify the questions and the statements (Cooper & Schindler, 2006).The Questions will be pretested in a  small group of participants to ensure that there will be no technical problem or misunderstanding the questions as it will be conducted in three to be in  three languages. The pre test will be conducted on a random 30.

In order to avoid any linguistically biased online participants will be randomly selected  who are native English, Arabic and German speakers. Moreover, the pre tester will give a feedback and comment on  any ambiguous question. Questionnaire Development:The questionnaire will be designed based on a comprehensive review of academic literature. The Questions will be designed taking previous studies into account.

It will focus on the limitations and weaknesses of previous studies to fill those gaps. The questions will address the online shopping barriers and drivers such as trust, security, and culture. Previous studies on online shopping have based on. A working title Background to your research task (2-3 pages) 2-3 research questions Research method (2-3 pages)   Timescale   Resources needed  Initial bibliography (ca. 1 pa.E-Loyalty Trust online brandingForming online brand would lead to trust…. Complete transactionPeople trust brands.

Building online trustTrust+braning— link2People trust brands– branding online increase participation. Companies should focus on brands to increase the participationsOther factors affect online shoppingHow online companies form brands zalandoHow to establish brands Problem: customers do not participate online, risk of online. Branding is ressurance NotesOnline branding or brandingGeographical locationsNationality and level of educationTrust age background Online shopping Cultural perspectiveWhat are the Factors that influence online shopping?Talk about trust security brandingAdd culture to Culture