Introduction”East,West, or adolescents against their current or former intimate

Introduction”East,West, home’s best”. It is true for most of us that home is best place to be in the world; however, for domestic violence victim, home is where all the miseries begin. Domestic violence or intimate partner violence is a sequence of behaviours including physical, sexual and psychological attacks, as well as economic coercion used by adults or adolescents against their current or former intimate partner(Ellsberg, M. and Heise, L., 2005), example for physical abuse are: slapping, shaking and threats with a knife, sexual abuse: coerced sex through threats or intimidation or through physical force, forcing unwanted sexual acts, forcing sex in front of others and forcing sex with others, Psychological abuse involves isolation from others, excessive jealousy, control of his or her activities, verbal aggression,…

Anyone can be the victim of domestic violence. It happens between people who are married and between people who aren’t living together. It can be abuse by a man against a woman, or by a woman against a man. It can occur in gay or lesbian relationships.

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While women are most commonly the victims of their male partners, domestic violence can happen between all sorts of people and in all sorts of relationships, accorded to domesticviolenceroundtable.Facts and figureIn developing countries, where domestic violence is prevalent, a report by Demographic and Health Survey in 9 countries :  Cambodia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Haiti, India, Nicaragua, Peru, and Zambia indicated that the percentage of women ever suffer from domestic violence differ in each country:  48 percent in Zambia and 44 percent in Colombia to 18 percent in Cambodia and 19 percent in India. More than 1 out of six married women in each country that was studied reported being pushed, shaken, slapped, or target with a thrown subject by their male partner(accorded to prb). A research by UNICEF pointed out, in India up to 45% of married men acknowledged physically abusing their wives, according to a 1996 survey of 6,902 men in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

Africa is where the situation seems worse, 42% of 612 women surveyed in one district reported having been beaten by a partner; of those 58% reported that they were beaten often or sometimes in Kenya. In Colombia, 19% of 6,097 women surveyed have been physically assaulted by their partner in their lifetime. Provided by Krug EG,  The highest rates of homicide for children aged less than five years are in the African Region (AFRO) at 17.9 per 100,000 for boys and 12.7 per 100,000 for girls.UNICEF (2006) reported that annually 133 to 275 million children have witnessed domestic violence in their families.

 As reported by the WHO (2002), in Egypt, 37 percent of all children suffer from physical punishment from their parents, in compare with the statistics from the Republic of Korea (45%), Romania (50%) Ethiopia (64%), India (36%) and the Philippines (21%). Besides physical abuse, children are also often victims of emotional and psychological abuse at their home. Data from Egypt indicates also that such abuse occurs among 72 percent of Egyptian children, which is comparable with observations from Chile (84%), India (70%), Philippines (82%) and the US (85%) as reported by the WHO (2002).In developed countries, domestic violence is still a major problem. Provided by Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW)(2016),  26% of women and 14% of men had experienced domestic abuse since the age of 16, equivalent to an estimated 4.3 million female victims and 2.2 million male victims. There were a total of 1,031,120 domestic abuse-related incidents and crimes recorded by the police in England and Wales in the year ending March 2016.

Women were around twice as likely to have experienced domestic abuse since the age of 16 (26.3%) than men (13.6%). In America, things are not better, accorded to American Psychological Association 4,774,000 women in the U.

S. who experience physical violence by an intimate partner every year 1 in 4 women who will be victims of severe violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime(huffingtonpost). In France, 26% ever-partnered women aged 18–74 years experiencing intimate partner physical and/or sexual violence at least once in their lifetime(EUAFR,2014).

Children are also affected either by witnessing or being victim of Domestic Violence, 15.5 million U.S. children live in families in which partner violence occurred at least once in the past year, and seven million children live in families in which severe partner violence occurred(McDonald, 2016) . The rate of co-occurrence of Australian children experiencing physical abuse and being exposed to domestic violence, and experiencing sexual abuse and being exposed to domestic violence have been estimated at 55 percent and 40 percent respectively (Bedi & Goddard 2007)ReasonFirst from the  abuser position, stated by Gluck(2016), domestic violence happened when the abusers try to show dominant behavior over their intimate partner.

Abusers may feel this need to control their partner because of low self-esteem, extreme jealousy, difficulties in regulating anger and other strong emotions,… or when they feel inferior to the other partner in education and socioeconomic background, reported by Goldsmith(2016). Other factors are believed to increase the likelihood of domestic violence from the abusers, are environment, belief and stimulant. Experts regarded that being raised in a violent and abusive household  results in domestic violence to remain as a generational legacy.

Children who grow up observing their mother being abused, especially by their fathers, grow up with a role model of intimate relationship   in which one person uses intimidation and violence over the other person to get their way, accorded to Domesticviolencerountable. Goldsmith(2016) also mentioned traditional belief as one of the main causes. This included cultural and social norms, as they support different aspect of violence, for example belief that men have the right to control or discipline women through physical means makes women vulnerable to violence by intimate partners (Mitra&Singh,2007; Ilika,2006), and that divorce is shameful can impede outside intervention and prevent the victim from speaking up and getting support(Hussain,2008).

According to Quit Alcohol, alcohol influences the user’s ability to perceive, and it can be showed that when being drunk, it is harder for an abusive spouse to interpret the other’s word or action correctly, which can generate violent behaviors in order to seek supremacy. However, there is no clear evidence   for alcohol causing abuse. If this were the case, then every drunkard would lash out his or her partner.Furthermore, victims of domestic violence do contribute to the prevalence of such behaviour. Introduced in The Battered Women (Lenore E Walker, 1979), a psychological condition that keeps victims from leaving their abuser known as “the Battered women syndrome”, is regarded as a reason for women not to leave their abuser. Walker emphasized that the battered women, through life experience have learned that they are helpless to escape or avoid violence. Women suffer from this syndrome find themselves passive, submissive, depressed, overwhelmingly fearful, and psychologically paralyzed. Walker argues in her book that this psychological condition play a significant role in keeping women in abusive relationships.

Other reasons for women to stay in an abusive relationship mentioned in Encyclopedia, are their economic dependency on their batterers, their choice to be with a violent husband rather than to raise their kid on their own, mistakenly interpret their abuser’s effort to control their life as expressions of love,.. Abused women often hold distorted belief and perception that they cause the abuse and they should be able to prevent it by changing their behavior. Also the fear of worse violence may be bred as they attempting to end an abusive relationship, keeps women from leaving.EffectMental health problems including anxiety and depression are now generally recognized as associated with experiencing domestic violence.

According to Healthtalk, some women continue to experience anxiety and depression after leaving the relationship, as Penny – one of the victims stated:”…I kept bursting into tears. …And not sleeping, waking up at three o’clock with scrambled egg brain.

And I was just a wreck really. I just, yeah, I was bursting into tears all the time.” Panic attacks, flashbacks or nightmares, self-harmed, and suffer from PTSD, are described as the aftershock of domestic violence by the victims. By Refuge, abused women often live in fear, isolation from friends and family. Overtime, her self-esteem are worn down, she may blame herself for the abuse and start to believe her abuser’s insults.

This can become even harder for the victim to reach out for help. Accorded to wrsac, victims of domestic violence are suffer from physical health problem of all types. Bruises, sprained or broken wrists, chronic fatigue, shortness of breath, muscle tension, change in sleeping and eating patterns, sexual dysfunction, menstrual cycle or fertility issues in women, are the common physical effect to women by Joyfulheartfoundation. Other conditions associated with prolonged and severe stress such as headache and gastrointestinal problems, continued by wrsac, victim of abusive relationship tend to have a lower immune system leaving them vulnerable to to respiratory ailments and other infections.The psychological effects on children are related to the future individual development.Very young children have limitation to control feeling and cognitively process environmental information so they rely on their parents to interpret the meaning of the event(Rossman, Hughes, & Rosenberg, 2000). This make the impact of domestic violence even more significant for young children as they are not there during the moment of distress.

Young children exposed to domestic violence demonstrate more behaviour difficulties, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and have lower self-esteem and capacity for empathy(Holt, et al., 2008). In addition, a research by Infant Mental Health Promotion mentioned the increased risk for the disorder related to the relationship with the caregivers, known as Complex Trauma or Relationship Trauma. Goldsmith(2016) stated that kids that spectating  or be being a victim of violence may learn that violence is a sensible  way to resolve conflict between people. This also impairs the child’s ability to trust others and destroys his or her ability to control emotions which leads to hostile, dependent, and emotionally insecure people with a deeply damaged ability to develop and maintain healthy relationships(Gluck,2016).

Exposure to domestic violence has also been linked to poor school performance. Children who grow up with domestic violence may have impaired ability to concentrate; difficulty in completing school work; and lower scores on measures of verbal, motor, and social skills, according  to nctsn.