INTRODUCTION the endosperm, protein and cell walls, which makes

Barley is a significant food source for humans and used as a
crop for animal feed. It comes on fourth number in the area of
farming of cereal crop in the world. The vital role of barley is
that, it is used as a material which is used for manufacturing of
malt and beer. The process of malting involve the germination
of barley in a controlled condition in which hydrolytic enzymes
are produced which digest the starch of the endosperm,
protein and cell walls, which makes the grain easily
crumbled.(Bamforth and Barclay, 1993)
Malting is restricted germination of cereal grains.Occasionally
malt is used after drying in a warm air or by sun drying. It is
used to prepare food and drinks in all over the world. In
industrialized countries usually malt is prepared by barley but it
can also be made by different varieties of millet, wheat, maize,
oat rye, triticale and even the rice.
The word malt is derived from the word “melt” as during the
process of germination it becomes soft, or may be the word
“malled”(broken) because in the processing of brewing malt
are milled. (D.E. Briggs, 1998)
Protein in Barley and Malt
The barley consists of number of protein. The fully ripened
grain of barley contains a wide range of protein that versatile in
structure, location, role and other chemical and visible
qualities. The seed tissues of barley have large number of
dissolve protein contents and a clear entire complement of a
protein. The three tissues of the barley seed which are the main
tissues are the embryo, aleurone layer, and endosperm .the
amount of protein in barley is an important factor to identify
the attributes of malting, which is affected by the fertility of
soil, fertilizer application, rotation of crop and climate
conditions.( Finnie C and Svensson B ,2003)
The quality of barley seed is determined by the presence of
protein. In the process of malting, the enzyme proteinases
breakdown the barley storage protein into amino acid and
peptides. (Kunze W, 2007, Narzi L, 2005, Jones BL et al 2000).
The most important factor for the composition of protein is to
estimate the level of protein in malting and which can be
measured by conventionally method, the Kolbach index
(soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen*100).( Evans DE,1998, Iimure T
Why Barley is best for Malting Process?
Barley consist of such enzymes which convert the
insoluble starch into simple sugars and it also consist of
simple protein, produce yeast and develop the other
enzymes.(Kelly J. Kuehl,1994 )
Why is the Mash important?
To convert starch into sugar, it is an important step
which affects the finished beer.
Starch Degradation
Raw Barley
(Starch to
Malted Barley
(Simple Starch)
Malting Process
Malting is a set of processes in which germination of
barley is done in order to make sugar present inside the
kernel suitable for mashing.
Malting process consist of three basic steps which are
? Steeping
? Germination
? Kilning
? The aim of steeping is to uniformly hydrate the endosperm
of the raw barley kernel.
? The process of germination will enhance by increase of the
moisture content of barley grain is almost 12% to 45%.
? The process of steeping is complete approximately 36-48
hours and it depends upon the moisture content of raw
barley kernel which is going to steep.
? After the process of steeping the grains need to sprout
fully so that the kernels are scattered in a hidden
compartment type “bed”.
? The beds of germination barley not exceed 15cm.
? The traditional floor malting is usually preferred in mostly
malt houses.
? The beds of grain required aeration at regular interval.
? To develop the grain rootlets, set over the next 3-6 days so
that malt’s protein and enzyme content are modified.
? The malt will be highly modified as long as the duration of
germination is given.
? In the post germination process pre-kilned barley is made
which is called “green malt”
? The green malt or sprouted malt is moved into kiln to dry
which modify the kernel.
? Malt is dried as much as possible at a lower temperature
around 90°F which helps to preserve the enzyme in the
? The 1st drying period usually takes about 24 hours.
? The 2nd drying period is carried at slightly high
temperature around 120°F which last for approximately
? The 3rd step is curing which takes about 24-48 hours at
almost 180-220°F.
? The process of malt affects the stability, fragrance and
? The process of malt regulates the length of kilning and
Malt is splited into two distinct groups:
? Brewer’s or Base Malt
? Specialty Malt
Base malt has the ability to convert their own starch.
Speciality malt has less ability so that they are just only use to
provide taste, essence, and color to the finished beer.
6 Critical Points
1)Color ( it change from batch to batch)
2) Moisture (Base malt should be 1.5%)
3) Extract (DBCG)(Dry Basis Coarse Grind)
4) Diastatic Power (power to reduce the starch enzyme
into malt)
5) Protein (Total) 10-12%
6) Kernel Size (easier to mill)
(Greg Noonan, 1997)
raw barley
cleaning and
graded barley
clean malt
hulls &
Process of Malting
Introduction to Cereal Production
Cereal grains are the basic component of human diet for
thousands of years and have played a major role in developing
human customs. Wheat, maize, and rice, and to a lesser extent,
sorghum and millets, are important staple cereal crops around
the world. From the consumption of cereal grain more than
50% of world daily caloric intake is directly obtained.The cereal
grains used for human food are milled to remove bran
(pericarp) & germ, particularly to meet the expectations of
consumers. As compared to developed countries the
developing countries depend more on cereal grains for
nutritional purposes. Cereal grains are considered as the most
important and single source of calories to the majority of world
natives. More than 80% calories in poor countries & close to
60% of calories in developing countries are directly derived
from cereals. In developed areas approximately 30% of calories
derived directly from cereals. However, in the richest countries
that do not consume cereals directly, the grains remainthe
most important food material, since they provide most of the
nutrients forthe animals that form a major part of food in these
areas. Among various factors, there are three most important
factorson which type of grains produced depend around the
world. These are environmental, cultural, and economic
factors. The most critical environmental factors that probably
determine the crops grown in a specific region are temperature
and the water availability. Theregions where water is available
in excess, rice is dominant crop & also to some extent maize.
Rice is often grown under floodingconditions, therefore most
sensitive to water deficiency. For the production of rice in most
regions, enough rainfall or accessible fresh water mustbe
available.(Awika et al, 2011)
Major Cereal Crops:
1. Rice (Oryza sativa)
2. Wheat, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)
3. Durum wheat, macaroni wheat (Triticum durum)
4. Corn or maize (Zea mays)
5. Job’s Tears, salay, adlay, tigbe, pawas (Coix lachryma-jobi)
6. Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
7. Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)
8. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
9. Oat (Avena sativa)
10. Rye (Secale cereale)
11. Triticale (xTriticosecale)
12. Teff, taf (Eragrostis tef)
13. Fonio (Digitaria exilis)
14. Wild rice, Canada rice, Indian rice, water oats (Zizania
15. Spelt (Triticum spelta)
16. Canary grass (Phalaris sp.) (Ben G. Bareja, 2015)
Cereal Crop Production Technologies
The initial incentive to improved productivity is an indicator to
the development of hybrid varieties whereas the more recent
approach is basically the result of advancements in crop
production technologies. The development of hybrid varieties
are broadly documented, but only recently that wide range of
reports has been published on the modern methods of crop
production. (ALDRICH, S. R, LENG, E. R, 1965)
With respect to pesticides and fertilizersGreen revolution
technique uses high energy of crop production technologies.
There are several problems reported related to the pests with
green revolution crops. The problems can be more criticalwhen
there is energy crisis in the world. A careful judgement should
be created of the advantages, prices, and dangers of high
energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be sure
that this program will not increase the serious world food
situation. (David Pimentel, L. E. Hurd, A. C. Bellotti, M. J.
Forster, I. N. Oka, O. D. Sholes, R. J. Whitman, 1973)
It is clear that every method of production, from seedbed
preparation to harvesting and storage of the crop as silage or
grain, is the subject of serious study from recent years.However
minimum cultivation techniques are useful for many areas in
the Corn Belt and trusted to become increasingly popular.
Recent research data has justified the commercial bent towards
narrow drill rows, early sowing and high plant populations.
(ALDRICH, S. R, LENG, E. R, 1965)
Rice the most important source for gaining Rice is the single
most important source of calories for humans. Among cereal,
rice is grown mainly for direct human consumption with very
little making it to other uses. Rice contributes approximately
21% of world per capita caloric intake, and 27% of per capita
calories in the developing countries.The distribution and
properties of soil, climate, hydrology-related, and abiotic
factors highlight the importance of the goal, which can help
with particular characteristics, such as submergence tolerance
(Xu et al., 2006), tolerance of better rice varieties, phosphorus
shortage tolerance (Gamuyao et al., 2012) and water stress
tolerance (Verulkar et al., 2010). Aerobic rice varieties are
grown by crossing traditional lowland and upland varieties
(Atlin et al., 2006). Another technique of rice planting is paddy
rice. They are grown by replanting 25- to 35-days-old seedlings
in well-developed puddled soils to judge decontamination,
growth of weeds, and infestation. It needs large quantity of
fresh water for its complete growth. Many technologies have
been found for rice cultivation, for example another wetting-
drying, direct sowing, motorized systems of rice increase. With
the collaboration of national and international research
organizations Aerobic rice systems are well established in the
provinces of Punjab and Sindh by the Pakistan Research Council
(PARC) (IRRI, 2010; Sharif, 2011). For example, as another
method for replanting of seedlings, seeds are directly sown in
the field. This system is suitable for the fields where there is
reduction of unit area cost and labour is not available (Pandey
et al., 2002; Pandey and Velasco, 2005). Moreover, wide range
of chemicals is used for weed control, which also reduces
labour for weeding (Farooq et al., 2011). Irrigation needs are
achieved when soil water is low to its critical level. The general
production of aerobic rice & directly seeded rice are more
beneficial and environmentally strong production system.
That’s why in water-scarce areas, aerobic rice system is
beneficial technique (Bouman et al., 2007; Bouman et al.,
2005). According to a report which was published by FAO
(2000), 69% of fresh water is used for irrigation in agriculture
and from all foods approx. 40 per centis produced by irrigation
in agriculture. This strategy has given the vastness to
production of cereals (rice & wheat) using less amount of
irrigation water. There is a threat to Pakistan suffering for
shortage of irrigation water in future. Farmers use generally
open flooded systems for irrigating fields due to which water is
not distributed uniformly and sometimes it is over-irrigated
(Kahlown and Kemper, 2004). There is a trend towards
depending on rice crops expecting standing water during the
growing to increase the yields. Various researches within
Pakistan has shown that 13 cm–18 cm of water is used for
irrigating the field, which is noticeably more than the exploitive
use between two irrigation events, which is approx. 8 cm
(Kahlown et al., 2001).
Wheat is a staple crop of many countries where it is consumed
directly and considered as an important cereal crop.
Defensibility and honesty in food production are very important
for justifiable crop production. Supply of water & energy are
very important and will always be beneficial for creating a base
to the sustainability of agriculture and reliability of food
production. Golden era of water management was experienced
by Pakistan in 1980s; canal irrigation system was also
developed at that time. The GDP values of Pakistan economy
mainly depends on agriculturebecause Pakistan is an
agricultural country unavailability of water in agriculture has
adverse effects on economy. More than 40 per cent of labour is
involved directly or indirectly in agriculture sector (Pakistan,
2008–09). In Pakistan, staple crops like wheat are generally
planted on flat basin which is flooded with irrigation water; a
large amount of water is wasted due to that irrigation method.
Evaporation and deep percolation losses also cause a severe
shortages to crops related to overexploitation of groundwater,
encouraging a search for alternative methods of water
application to crops, for example, raised bed (RB) technology,
to meet water demands. There is a serious challenge for
agriculturists to meet the feeding requirements of nine billion
people by the middle of the 21st century (FAO, 2009). To
produce more food from less water in arid and semi-arid areas
is a challenge for today’s agriculture (Shideed, 2011). Water
shortage and scarcity cause degradation of land due to rain-fed
agriculture (Suleimenov et al., 2011) and lower food
production, particularly in the agricultural and semi-agricultural
zones of Africa (Fraiture et al., 2010). Approximately 80 per
cent of the world’s agriculture comprises rain-fed land, which
produces 80 per cent of the food globally (Falkenmark et al.,
2001; Valipour, 2013). In North Africa and West Asia, 95 per
cent of land is rain-fed, and approximately 40 per cent of the
land in Uzbekistan has been used due to water shortages,
causing despoiled fields (Shaumarov and Birner, 2013; Zakaria
et al., 2013). Wheat is an important crop in Pakistan due to its
widespread use as food (Iqtidar et al., 2006). Limited water
results in susceptibility to water scarcity conditions, causing
wheat biomass to reduce wheat crops (Oweis and Hachum,
2004; Tavakkoli and Oweis, 2004; Xie et al., 2005). Harvesting
and utilization of rain water have been successfully used in
many arid regions, using runoff water from the catchment area
and delivering it to the collection acreage (Qiang et al., 2006;
Short and Lantzke, 2006). Rain water efficiency can be
improved with appropriate water harvesting techniques, such
as micro-watersheds (Rogelio et al., 2006; Zakaria et al., 2012).
Using this technique can increase the capacity of water per unit
of crop area and can also increase productivity (Oweis and
Hachum, 2003; Ramotra and Giakwad, 2012).