IntroductionAn electric caris powered by an electric motor instead of a gasoline engine. The electricmotor gets energy from a controller, which regulates the amount of power—basedon the driver’s use of an accelerator pedal. The electric car (also known aselectric vehicle or EV) uses energy stored in its rechargeable batteries, whichare recharged by common household electricity.Unlike ahybrid car—which is fueled by gasoline and uses a battery and motor to improveefficiency—an electric car is powered exclusively by electricity.
Historically, EVs have not been widely adopted because oflimited driving range before needing to be recharged, long recharging times,and a lack of commitment by automakers to produce and market electric cars thathave all the creature comforts of gas-powered cars. That has changed. Asbattery technology improved—simultaneously increasing energy storage andreducing cost—major automakers introduced a new generation of electric cars. Electric vehiclesare a proven technology with strong environmental, economic and socialbenefits. Electric vehicles can be powered by renewable energy, and couldreduce emissions in the transport sector to help Australia meet its ParisAgreement emissions reduction goals at a lower cost. They also offer benefitsto public health, through reducing air pollution in cities, and could generateAustralian jobs in sales, charging infrastructure deployment, and potentiallythe manufacture of batteries and electric vehicle components.
Fueling with electricity offers some advantages notavailable in conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. Because electricmotors react quickly, EVs are very responsive and have very good torque. EVs are often more digitally connected than conventional vehicles, with many EVcharging stations providing the option to control charging from a smartphoneapp.
Just like a smartphone, you can plug in your EVwhen you get home and have it ready for you to use the next morning. Since the electric grid is available almost anywhere, there are a variety ofoptions for charging: at home, at work or on the road.By charging often, you may never need to go to a gas station again! There are also somedisadvantages of the electric cars, Electric cars are limited as to thedistance that they can be driven before complete battery failure; average rangeis only about 100 miles. Electric cars cannot cruise, accelerate, or climb fastenough to compete with gasoline-powered cars and accessories, such as air conditioningand radios, drain the battery even further. Electric cars are usuallycreated by replacing the fuel tank and gasoline engine of a conventional carwith electric motors, batteries, chargers, and controllers, the result is a carthat is heavier and less efficient than a car solely running onelectricity.
Electric cars are more expensive because the manufacturercannot fully recover the cost of the discarded parts and new parts andtechnology are expensive. Electric vehicles are not completely “emission-free.”If the electricity used is produced by a coal or oil-fired generator, this onlytransfers the emissions from the tailpipe to the power plant.Despite these benefits, Australia is falling behind onelectric vehicle uptake. While there are two million electric vehicles on theroad globally, just 1369 electric vehicles were sold in Australia in 2016,representing 0.
1 per cent of the market.1 International evidence suggests astrong correlation between cumulative electric vehicle sales and the number ofvehicle models being offered. An anticipated improvement in the number of lowercost models available in Australia is likely to increase sales. Australia’srelatively slow rate of electric vehicle uptake stands in contrast to positiveconsumer attitudes. Our survey of 504 Victorians found that 50.2 per cent ofrespondents would be willing to consider purchasing an electric vehicle, andthat 19 per cent had researched the options for purchasing an electric vehicle.
However, purchase cost and the distance able to be travelled on a charge remainkey concerns.ProductAnalysis The State ofElectric Vehicles report provides an up-to-date assessment of the state ofAustralia’s electric vehicles industry. Through annual updates, the report willtrack Australia’s progress towards lower emissions, more cost-effective lightvehicle fleet. This structured into four sections, and provides key dataagainst a range of barriers to electric vehicle uptake:1. Electricvehicle uptake in Australia, including electric vehicle sales numbers over asix year period, both by jurisdiction and market segment. This section alsoprovides an overview of historical, current and future model availability inAustralia.2.
Charginginfrastructure, reviewing the roll out of electric vehicle charginginfrastructure across Australia by state and location.3. Consumerattitudes, presenting the results of an online survey carried out by the RoyalAutomotive Club of Victoria (RACV) which asked 504 Victorians about theirperceptions of electric vehicles. The results of this survey are consistentwith similar consumer attitudes surveys conducted in other areas of Australiaand internationally.4.
Electricvehicle policy in Australia, reviewing implemented policy across federal, stateand territory jurisdictions. While local governments also play an importantrole in supporting electric vehicle uptake, an assessment of local governmentpolicy was not within the scope of this report. 1. Electricvehicle uptake in AustraliaGlobally, the number of electricvehicles sold each year is growing rapidly, with a 40 per cent increase from2015 to 2016, to reach sales volumes of over 750,000 in 2016. There are nowmore than two million electric vehicles on the road.2 In contrast, Australianelectric vehicle sales fell 23 per cent from 2015 to 2016. Australianspurchased 701 plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and 668 fully electric vehiclesin 2016, making up 0.1 per cent of the Australian market.
3 The decline inelectric vehicle sales may be linked in part to the limited number of lowerpriced models available in 2016. Australia’s states and territoriesdiffer in their rate of electric vehicle uptake. In the last six years,Victorians have purchased the highest number of electric vehicles, with 1,017vehicles purchased between 2011 and 2016 (excluding Tesla vehicle numbers).However, taking into account market size, the ACT is outperforming otherjurisdictions: in 2016, ACT residents purchased 18 electric vehicles for every10,000 vehicles sold.
Business is the largest buyer ofelectric vehicles at 64 per cent of total sales in 2016. In its recent reporton the emissions intensity of Australia’s new vehicle fleet, the NationalTransport Commission presented detailed sales data for a selection of electricvehicle models. This data indicates that over the period of 2011 to 2016, themajority of sales were from manufacturer fleets and dealer demonstrators (62per cent of total sales)4. In Australia’s developing electric vehicle market,vehicle manufacturers use their own fleet and demonstrator vehicles forpromotion and education. These vehicles are then sold as ex-demonstrator orex-executive vehicles. As the market matures, the proportion of vehicles inthis category is likely to decrease: for the overall vehicle market inAustralia, manufacturer fleets and dealer demonstrators make up only 20 percent of total sales.
Private buyers also make up asubstantial portion of the market, at 34 per cent of total sales. In contrast,government fleets make up only 2 per cent of total sales. Given the greaterpurchasing power of fleets in comparison to individual buyers, increasing salesin this segment represents a significant opportunity for governments to leadelectric vehicle uptake in Australia.
2. CharginginfrastructurePerceptions around the availability ofpublic charging infrastructure can be crucial to electric vehicle uptake. Whileresearch shows that most electric vehicle charging will occur at home or in theworkplace9, widespread public infrastructure is needed to mitigate rangeanxiety on the part of prospective purchasers.There are currently 476 dedicatedelectric vehicle public charging stations in Australia. While Victoria has thehighest number of charging stations, the Australian Capital Territory isleading on a per capita basis with 3.
5 chargers per 100,000 residents. Chargingstations are currently concentrated in capital cities, however, there is anexpanding regional network as regional towns and cities are capitalising on thepotential tourism benefits of providing electric vehicle charginginfrastructure. In addition, governments, membership organisations and vehiclemanufacturers are installing electric vehicle fast charging highways, with fastcharging available at regular intervals along high-use regional routes. Forexample, the Royal Automobile Club (RAC) in Western Australia has installed 11fast charging stations in south west WA, while Tesla has installed TeslaSuperchargers to allow travel between Melbourne and Brisbane, with plans toconnect to Adelaide and common holiday destinations.
Charging infrastructure comes in avariety of forms. Currently, the majority of chargers available in Australiaare AC chargers. AC charging is used primarily for locations where an electricvehicle will be parked for more than an hour. AC Charging power levels rangefrom 2.
4kW to 22kW, with an average installation of 11kW charging a vehicle atapproximately 50km of range per hour. In contrast DC chargers provide muchfaster charging, and are thus more useful for travelling long distance betweencities. There are currently 40 DC charging stations available in Australia. 3.
CustomersAttitudesConsumer attitudes are vital tounderstanding purchasing decisions and the motivations behind electric vehicleuptake in Australia. Through an online survey carried out by RACV on behalf ofthe Electric Vehicle Council, 504 Victorians were asked about their perceptionsof electric vehicles. In reviewing the responses, there was a relatively evenresponse rate based on gender (53 per cent female and 47 per cent male) andacross age demographics (approximately 5-10 per cent across 12 age categories).The results of the survey demonstratedthat while many people are willing to consider purchasing an electric vehicle,purchase cost and access to charging infrastructure remain key barriers touptake Of the respondents, 50 per cent said that they would consider buying anelectric vehicle and 19 per cent of respondents had spent time researching theoptions for buying an electric vehicle.
Key selling points were theenvironmental friendliness of the vehicles and cost savings on fuel andmaintenance. Conversely, 40 per cent of respondents said they would notconsider buying an electric vehicle with range and access to charginginfrastructure issues common concerns. 4. ElectricVehicle Policy in AustraliaInternational experience hasdemonstrated that policy can be critical in encouraging the uptake of electricvehicles. In comparison to our global peers, policy support for electricvehicles in Australia remains in its early stages.
Australia does not currentlyhave an overarching electric vehicle policy framework, which limits thecapacity for a coordinated national approach. For example, the CommonwealthGovernment provides a discount on the luxury car tax, and a number of statesand territories provide varying discounts on stamp duty and registration forelectric vehicles. A number of state and territory governments also provideinformation and education for the public and business.
Some state and territory governmentshave begun to recognise the need for greater investment in electric vehicles.These governments have developed policies to support the deployment of charginginfrastructure and to encourage the uptake of electric vehicles in their ownfleets. For example, the Queensland Government is working with EnergyQueensland to roll out a network of fast chargers that will allow electricvehicle drivers to travel the 1,800 km between Cairns and the Gold Coast.
TheAustralian Capital Territory Government requires government fleet managers toconsider a car’s environmental impact in addition to functionality and leasecost, and also provides the largest stamp duty and registration discount. Thesepolicies could be contributing to the relatively high rate of electric vehicleuptake in the ACT, which has the highest electric vehicle market share of anystate or territory. RecommendationMore people are choosing tolive in cities or major conurbations. Those cities are getting more and morelegislation concerning air quality, and that puts cars right in the front line.While rural dwellers far from recharging points, and with big distances betweentowns, may not really see the attraction, city dwellers have already embracedelectric power not just for their apartments but for their transport too.They’ll have less choiceanyway as legislation is heading towards only zero-emission vehicles havingaccess to cities. So with lots of vehicle choice, and with range anxiety slowlyfading, what are the best all-electric cars? There are top 10 cars which I havechosen:-1. Volkswagen e-UpThe electric versionof the tremendous Up feels just as good as the normal city car, but it’squieter and very city-friendly.
And costs twice as much as the petrol version.2. Nissan LeafThe Astra-sized Leafis practical, easy to drive and good value. You get a theoretical 124 miles ofrange but if you go for a higher trim level you can get this extended to 155miles. Or so.
3. Toyota MiraiThe electric motor inthe Mirai is powered by a hydrogen fuel cell, making for a quiet and decentdrive in this eye-catching saloon. But refueling stations are few and farbetween, and the asking price of £66,000 will keep this a rare sight on theroads. 4. Kia Soul EVIf you like the Soul,then you’ll really enjoy the EV version, which drives even better than thepetrol car, with more torque and more zip. However, it also costs more money,and a cabin that feels more utility than future-chic. 5.
Tesla Model XOver time the cabin ofthe Model X is getting more upmarket, and frankly it needs to for the price.But other than that, you’re getting serious pace and luxury with low runningcosts and green credentials.6. Hyundai IoniqThe EV version of theIoniq is a decent car by any standards, and there’s enough pace and range(about 175 miles) to please most drivers. You can also get a hybrid or plug-inhybrid version if you prefer. 7. Volkswagen e-GolfTake the conventional,highly-regarded hatchback, and convert it to electric propulsion.
The result isthe same terrific Golf but with lower running costs and less noise. 8. BMW i3BMW went the otherroute and started from scratch with the i3. The battery pack is low, and thelight weight of the carbonfibre and aluminium body results in adecent-handling, nippy car. It’s quite a looker too. 9. Tesla Model SIt’s expensive but youget a huge amount for your money. There’s the futuristic cabin for seven witheverything run from the 17in touchscreen, plus there is decent range andperformance that is seriously, startlingly fast.
10. Renault ZoeThis is a terrificcity car for four people that looks and handles like a normal small hatchback,yet it costs very little to run. There’s the practicality of decent spaceincluding a largish boot, as well as surprising low-down shove to get you awayfrom the lights in style. ConclusionThe progress that theelectric vehicle industry has seen in recent years is not only extremelywelcomed, but highly necessary in light of the increasing global greenhouse gaslevels. As demonstrated within the economic, social,and environmental analysis sections of this webpage, the benefits ofelectric vehicles far surpass the costs. The biggest obstacle to the widespreadadoption of electric-powered transportation is cost related, as gasoline andthe vehicles that run on it are readily available, convenient, and less costly.
As is demonstrated in our timeline, we hope that over the course of the nextdecade technological advancements and policy changes will help ease thetransition from traditional fuel-powered vehicles. Additionally, therealization and success of this industry relies heavily on the globalpopulation, and it is our hope that through mass marketing and environmental educationprograms people will feel incentivized and empowered to drive anelectric-powered vehicle. Each person can make a difference, so go electric andhelp make a difference. Reference:-Hybrid and Electric Cars2017-2018: The Best and the Rest, Hybrid and Electric Cars 2017-2018: The Bestand the Rest, https://www.caranddriver.com/best-hybrid-electric-cars