INTRODUCTION Culture as the product of its history refers to the cultural history and how history has made our culture as it is now. Rubin, M.
(2008). Cultural history I: what’s in a name?, mentions Cultural history is not simply the study of high culture or peoples’ past rituals. It is best described as an approach which thinks about the space of portrayal and the struggle over significance as the most productive territories.
Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience (“Cultural history,” n.d., para.
1). The concentration of my exploration will be on how the culture and the way of life has changed over time and what impacts of history had on it and also on phenomena shared by individuals in the public arena, for example, fair, celebration, and public rituals; performance traditions of the tale, epic, and other verbal forms; cultural revolution in human relations (thoughts, sciences, expressions, methods); and social articulations of social developments, for example, patriotism. BACKGROUND Warner, (2014). Where do Fairy Tales comes from?, refers Fairy tales are one of the excellent examples of the connection between mythological past and the present realities.
These fairy tales keep on attaching contemporary fictions with myths and realities. It indirectly comes from the history, but partially real and partially imaginary. This guide of fables still contains numerous unexplored corners and new parts.
These storytelling populations depend on the location basedon their past (Warner, 2014). Harbors, gathering and religious places have an influential fairytale folk. Some of the north and circumpolar regions, as well as Russia and central Asia, are also rich in the fairy tale. Now, about cultural history, it’s not just the investigation of high culture, past customs. It is best described as an approach which thinks about the space of portrayal and the battle over important areas of historical understanding. According to Rubin, M.
(2008),Cultural History I:What’s in a name?, approaches developed from the 1970s onward and became associated with the ‘linguistic turn.’ Today cultural history researchers are expanding the connection to a wide assortment of subjects, creating histories of the body or substance, for instance. However, cultural history covers with different phases in the behavioral pattern and sociologies. Accordingly, there is a constant flow of methodologies, corners, and specialism inside the area.
Because of the importance of group formation and identity articulation for culture, the evolution of character and group history are tremendous inside the range. Huizinga Institute that serves as a national research network of Netherland for Cultural History has strongly claimed that Culture is built in the way of living and habits. Nunn, N. (2012).
Cultural and the Historical Process. Economic History of Developing regions, tries to find the role of social qualities in developing the relative wellness and historical-shocks that can leave significant impacts in the events that they bring change in costs and benefits of different. Various observational examinations confirm that culture is a vital component that clarifies why cultural shocks are such effective. For instance, we can talk about the frontier causes theory (Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001). It demonstrates that “our understanding of the transplantation of European legal and political institutions during the colonial period remains incomplete unless the values and beliefs brought by European settlers are taken into account.
” It is these social beliefs that framed the establishment of the fundamental institutions were the key for long-term development economically. Finally, History and culture are two terms that have an abundance of the distinction between the two in their significance. History manages the development of a specific nation or land. Culture leads the interests appeared in the general population of the particular nation or land. Olivia, (2010). Difference between History and Culture, has claimed that History is about the making of nation and culture is about the making of a man or a person. In any case, both are related as well. Culture is a subset of history.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1) What is culture?2) What is cultural history and historical culture?3) What is the relation between culture and history?4) How does history influence on our culture?5) Why does cultures vary over places and time?6) Why does a culture is always changing rather than being constant?7) How does the geography of history affect on culture?8) Why does history never changes but culture does? HYPOTHESIS Culture is the social condition of behavioral pattern, arts, beliefs, institutions and all other products of human work and thought. From my research, I expect to find the History as the root of these behavioral patterns and beliefs. Since all the culture somehow comes from the past, it can be said that these histories have established those cultures by time. It is expected that culture varies from place to place and time to time as different places have a different history in different time. I expect these differences over time will help me to show how culture can be considered as the product of its history. I also expect, there are different types of elements of history that play the most important role in the formation of culture. It is expected to show how these elements, as well as the factors of changing a culture, varies with the history over time. It is also expected that, after my research, I will also find that a culture can be said to be the first identity of society over religion, caste, and class.
METHODOLOGY For my primary research, I have conducted a survey of a representative sampling of the common people of Bangladesh and also interview people who are doing researches on the correlation between history and culture and the professors of the department of history. I will design a questionnaire with different types of questions to get a range of useful data which will help me to answer my questions. For my secondary research, I used the resources of the library and will also consult few books, articles from web and accounts of great historians and travelers. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS In order to collect sufficient data about the correlation between history and culture, I hosted a survey questionnaires various aspects on my topic. The data collected helped me to draw conclusions about my research topic. The questions were completed by a group of 53 people of whom there were 22 males and 28 females. The data collected is presented and analyzed in the following pages.
In my first question, I asked people if they ever been to any cultural events like Pahela boishakh, Halkhata, Noukabaich. The Purpose of asking this question is to measure the percentage of people attending cultural events related to our particular history. The result was as expected.
Approximately 95% of them responded positively and 5% of them responded negatively. A bar graph representing the data is given in Figure. 1 This data clearly shows the majority of people connected to the culture that came from our own historical or geographical background. Most of the people of our country are so into cultural events because of the history and tradition of it. My second question is related to the reason behind maintaining some of the cultural events that came from the past and remarked as a culture over time. I asked them “What is the main purpose of celebrating Halkhata festival? ” Approximately 45% of the people answered it as Business purpose and 50% of the people has responded to ” performing Traditional Rituals.” A pie chart represents the information in Figure 2.
Information from this question shows us the opinion of people about an event being celebrated each year. In the past, Halkhata was started for a business purpose but it turned into a traditional ritual over time. This also represents the views of people about maintaining this ritual. The Next question of my survey was a direct question of what does most of the people think about the reason behind changing a culture over time.
40% of the people answered ‘change in lifestyle’ is the main reason behind it. 40% of people responded to ‘Technological Development’ and 20% of people responded to ‘Rapid Urbanization”. A pie chart represents the information in Figure 3. This chart shows that a culture may come from the past history but can be changed with time and surroundings. Majority of people says that Technological development and change in lifestyle is a major reason behind these changes.
My next question was an indirect opinion about the gradual change is culture over time with the surrounding and the past. The question was “Why has NabannoUtshob lost its appeal in recent years? ” The answer came with varieties. 52% people selected ‘Urbanization’ as its main reason. 17% people selected ‘Decreasing dependency on manual harvesting’ . 14.8% people selected ‘Rapid use of Rice Milling Machinery’ and 16.
7% people selected ‘Rural development’. A pie chart represents the information in Figure 4. The answers show opinion about the reason behind turning a popular culture into a dead culture within time only because of changes in surrounding. Even if the culture of Nabanna used to be a popular culture because of our past geographical background, the culture is losing its appeal because of the change in society.
So basically because of a change in society the culture changes with the history. The next question queries about having knowledge about some tradition that came from any historical event. Thus, a question was asked that which one from the options came from our historical events.
The result was as expected. About 93% of the people selected going to Shaheedminar on 21st February is the only tradition derived directly from the historical event and become a culture. A Pie chart representing the data is given in Figure 5. The result of this question survey shows clearly how a culture is derived from the past with one particular event. And it can also be seen that culture with such historical significance is very popular among the general people. They all have a clear knowledge about such culture and reason behind it.
My next question is to show an opinion of why patriotic songs are always popular in Bangladesh? 27% of the people selected Patriotism as their answer. 47% of the people choose Historical Significance. Rest of the people selected Motivational as their answer.
The picture chart given below is representing the data in Figure 6. A majority of people choose historical significance and patriotism as their answer. The reason behind it is the past liberation war of our country.
With this historical event, so many culture has been arrived and still so popular in our country. Culture changes over time but culture with a past historical event can hardly be changed or dead because of its historical attachment with the people and the society. And these patriotic songs are motivational/ patriotic because of such historical significance. My next question was about the reason behind change in culture from place to place. It helped me to identify the opinion of people about the reason and their thought. A large part of respondent (48%) choose ‘Historical events’ as the main reason behind this variety in culture. 24% of the respondent choose ‘Geographical Factors’.
14.8% choose ‘Nationalism’ and 13.2% choose ‘Climate and Weather”. The pie chart showing the data is given below in Figure 7. This survey question helped me to calculate what people think about the root of culture. Most of the people did responded to the Historical events. Other than that, almost an equal number of people choose the other options which shows the other reasons like climate, geography, nationalism are also responsible for variety in culture. But the main reason is the historical events of that particular area from where culture derives.
The last question of my survey was a direct question to the respondent If they think history is the root of culture or not. The result was as expected. Approximately 95% of the respondent choose ‘YES’ as their answer. Rest of the 5% responded negatively in this question. A bar chart is given below representing the result in Figure 8.
This question clearly shows that a major group of people already feels that history is the root of its own history. The rest minority also indicates that there are other minor reasons behind a culture but the main root is its history and surrounding. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS The data I collected matched my hypothesis. I wanted to find the correlation between history and culture, and we can see most people thinks that culture is originated from history. Most importantly, more people are conscious of their history and historical events. The objectively verifiable part considers how protests, activities, and accounts are rehashed, duplicated, fluctuated and adjusted, both through the span of time and in various geological areas. How social viewpoint is communicated, for instance, language, symbol, and judgments influence individuals’ activities, mentalities, and outlooks.
Tradition, change, development, innovation, and dissemination are cases of social, cultural, and authentic historical procedures. Culture is typically learned through observation and interaction with those around us. It is surprising but it has been actually shaped by evolution.
There are some common practices that are performed in almost every culture, like the marriage ceremony or some rituals associated with deaths. Even if the expressions are different, it indicates the same thing. The effects of historical events on the culture are varied.
For instance, because of the liberation war, a different type of culture has been arrived and still so popular in our country and has become a tradition. We can see even after the so many years we still feel in the same way whenever we think about our liberation war. The songs written during the liberation war are always popular.
Culture changes over time, however, culture with a previously recorded event can barely be changed or dead because of its historical connection. Also, historical events and issues that concern the people at large (politics) can have a significant impact on the individual’s behavior. Again attitudes toward many social and political issues are connected to their beliefs about important historical events. Even Certain historical events can shape individual’s political attitudes. Even our mother tongue has a great history, and this is so important in the history of Bangladesh. What’s more, it can likewise be seen that culture with such authentic hugeness is extremely prominent among the general individuals. They all have precise information about such culture and explanation for it.
Geographical location also plays an important role in forming the history which eventually shapes the culture. There are other reasons like climate, geography, nationalism are also responsible for variety in culture, but the main reason is the historical events of that particular area from where culture derives. I have also found that Fairy tales are one of the excellent examples of the connection between mythological past and the present realities. These storytelling populations depend on the location based on their past, and these fairy tales have actually come from the history. Also, traditional occasions like Halkhata, Nabanno Utshab, NoukaBaich has a great historical significance and geographical influence. If culture wasn’t originated from the history then probably occasions like Halkhata couldn’t be so popular. I have seen that almost all the respondents have visited one of any cultural and traditional rituals and could identify the event that is associated with our own particular history.
Again geographical setting also plays an important role in the formation of a culture. For instance, events like Nabanno and NoukaBaich has become a part of our culture just because of the geological setting of our Country. I have also come to know that culture varies from the place to place and time to time.
Most of the respondents think technological development is the main reason behind this variety, but again it is a process of evolution of the history.Respondents also agree that history is the root of culture in their own way. In the context of culture as the result of historical events, more than 94% said that they actually agree to it.
Majority of the people also said that even if culture varies from place to place and time to time, the main reason behind it is the historical events and background of it. And even if culture and history are two different terms, they are correlated with each other. So, history is about making a nation and culture is about making a person. Culture is the subset of history. LIMITATIONS OF MY RESEARCH I have tried my best to make my research paper as much accurate and reliable as possible but there were still some shortcomings that I could not avoid. The very first limitation was with the survey questionnaire.
For a wide scale project like this, I had distributed only 14 questionnaires, as per my course instructor’s request. I think doing more survey would have given more precise results and may have affected the data analysis graphs. The second limitation was the reluctance of the participants to answer open-ended questions.
Most participants preferred choosing their answers from the given options rather than giving their own opinions. The third limitation was in using the number of sources for the secondary data. I found many relevant data from various sources but as per my course instructor’s request, I could use only few of them. CONCLUSION In conclusion History and culture are significantly connected with each other as culture derives from history. History is the root of these behavioral patterns and beliefs. History establishes these cultures and can be changed over time and place through the process of evolution. Technological development and rapid urbanization as a process of evolution are responsible for the changes in lifestyle, thus culture.
Different types of elements are responsible for building up a culture. Geographical location can be another major reason for culture like Noukabaich, Nabanna. There are some other minor factors like climate, weather, nationalism, etc that are responsible for cultural variations but history is the main root of it. Significant Historical events or shocks like liberation war, mother language movement also play a vital role to build up a culture. History deals with the improvement of particular land or country and culture deals with the interests showed up by the general population of the particular land.
REFERENCES Olivia. (2010, December 13). Difference between History and Culture. Retrieved November 15, 2017, from http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-history-and-culture/.
This article focuses on the differences between the history and the culture but also brings light to the relationship between history and culture and states that culture is the subset of the history. It describes that history includes battles, kings, monuments and tombs and culture comprises of poets, artists, musicians, dancers and the like. This article also highlights the interrelationship between history and culture and states that it is history that needs to suit the culture and the general population that maintain culture. Rubin (2008). Cultural history I: what’s in a name?, Retrieved December 6, 2017, from http://www.history.
ac.uk/makinghistory/resources/articles/cultural_history.html This article refers to the cultural history and claims that it is not just the investigation of past customs and high culture. And also brings light on the fact that cultural can be practiced in each field of movement: legislative issues, economics, connection, sexual orientation, religion and all their interlocking and overlapping domains. This article alsouses some examples to show how history has developed the culture by time. Huizinga Institute, Cultural History research culture, Retrieved December 6, 2017, from https://www.qrih.nl/en/profiles/cultural-history-research-culture This research led by the Huizinga Institute of Netherland tries to demonstrate that cultural history is distinct from adjoining verifiable specialism since it concentrates on culture (the advancement, exchange, and dispersal of ideas, ways of life, human expressions, and all the diverse types of information) and on source materials in different media (content, pictures, objects, exhibitions) that give historical documentation.
. This research also tries to prove that there is a constant flow of new methodologies, concerns, and specialism that arranges an essential part of the aggregate development and character explanation for culture. Marina, W. (2013,October23),Once Upon A Time: A Short History of Fairy Tale.
Retrieved November 15,2017, from http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20140930-where-do-fairy-tales-come-from This book tries to characterize the historical backdrop of the fairy tales. In this book, the writer has examined the fairy tales like it is a short story, here and there not as much as a solitary page, in some cases running excessively more and their history like why they have been passed on down the ages and furthermore finds the purposes for their prevalence. Nunn, N. (2012), Economic history of developing Regions. Journal of Economic History Society of Southern Africa, 27, 108-126.
Retrieved November 15, 2017, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/20780389.2012.
664864. This journal article discusses the importance of accounting for cultural values and beliefs when studying the process of historical economic development. It has given some examples of empirical studies which confirms that culture is an important mechanism that explains why historical shocks can have persistent impacts. It also attempts to find the reasons behind the different actions of different society taken at the same situation.
This journal also stated culture as the source of historical persistence.