INTRODUCTION on its surface and another thing is modification



Sensors are everywhere and they can be found in
daily life applications like touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamp dimmer
surfaces that answer to touch, but there are also many kinds of sensors that go
unnoticed by most – like sensors that are used in medicines, robotics,
aerospace and more. In all these sensors many efforts are still being made to
improve lower sensitivity, sensing of bulk materials, lower exposed surface to
the analyte, problems in bio-conjugation, higher limit of detection, large amount
of sample required, requires expertise, higher cost; large area is required for
sensor installations, sensitivity greatly affected by the environmental
conditions, low range of detection. However, nanotechnology played an important
role in solving some of the problems related to the biosensors. Similarly, with
the increasing interest in FRET-based sensors, despite significant research
work on the technology, there are some gaps in the literature with regards to
standardized testing. First is the lack of established test methods, through
rigorous performance evaluation of FRET biosensors. Published studies have been
implemented as “on-off” evaluations in individual studies and there
is little consistency among prior studies in evaluating the performance of
FRET-based sensors. Therefore, there is a need to enhance the selectivity and
sensitivity of FRET-based sensors. This motivates for the use of graphene and
graphene quantum dots in FRET-based sensors due to their unique properties.

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But now, if we talk about graphene-based sensors the
major problem is the stacking of the graphene layers which causes the reduction
of surface area for the immobilization of bio-element and reduces the
sensitivity of the sensor. To solve this problem we can increase the surface
area of the material by intercalation of some nanoparticles between the layers
of graphene which will increase the surface area for the attachment of the
bio-element on its surface and another thing is modification of the electrodes
with some coatings and we can make hybrid nanostructures which will increase
the transfer of electrons and increases the sensitivity of the sensor.