INTRODUCTION Sensors are everywhere and they can be found indaily life applications like touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamp dimmersurfaces that answer to touch, but there are also many kinds of sensors that gounnoticed by most – like sensors that are used in medicines, robotics,aerospace and more. In all these sensors many efforts are still being made toimprove lower sensitivity, sensing of bulk materials, lower exposed surface tothe analyte, problems in bio-conjugation, higher limit of detection, large amountof sample required, requires expertise, higher cost; large area is required forsensor installations, sensitivity greatly affected by the environmentalconditions, low range of detection. However, nanotechnology played an importantrole in solving some of the problems related to the biosensors. Similarly, withthe increasing interest in FRET-based sensors, despite significant researchwork on the technology, there are some gaps in the literature with regards tostandardized testing.
First is the lack of established test methods, throughrigorous performance evaluation of FRET biosensors. Published studies have beenimplemented as “on-off” evaluations in individual studies and thereis little consistency among prior studies in evaluating the performance ofFRET-based sensors. Therefore, there is a need to enhance the selectivity andsensitivity of FRET-based sensors. This motivates for the use of graphene andgraphene quantum dots in FRET-based sensors due to their unique properties. But now, if we talk about graphene-based sensors themajor problem is the stacking of the graphene layers which causes the reductionof surface area for the immobilization of bio-element and reduces thesensitivity of the sensor. To solve this problem we can increase the surfacearea of the material by intercalation of some nanoparticles between the layersof graphene which will increase the surface area for the attachment of thebio-element on its surface and another thing is modification of the electrodeswith some coatings and we can make hybrid nanostructures which will increasethe transfer of electrons and increases the sensitivity of the sensor.