Introduction: inequality with funding. Even today, schools are still

Introduction: There is an “unfair and inequitable funding of public education across states, with schools serving the highest proportion of impoverished students most often on the losing end” (Richmond 1). Across the United States, there is a lack of funding for public education, which is an enormous issue that affects many people. Education is important for students and requires a large amount of funds so that schools are able to give resources and teachers to teach students, in order for them to become educated and skilled. There are various reasons for these differences, from the governmental level to history. School funding has considerably changed over time. In the past, public education funding has always been high, but now the distribution is getting worse. During and after the years of the Great Recession, schools began to face the inequality with funding. Even today, schools are still being cut off with funds, and have to cut out certain programs. There needs to be a new and fixed formula used by states to determine how schools receive funds. It is important to ensure that America’s future generations are both skilled and educated. Over time, funding for public education has decreased, causing an unequal balance between schools across the United States, that needs to be revised. Funding in the past:In the past, funding for public education has been different to the way it is now. Spending on public education has always been high, but now the distribution is getting worse. Before the end of the 19th century, funding for public education was provided by voluntary contributors. However, public school funding is distributed through federal, state, and local sources. Majority of those funds come from local property taxes,  in which citizens pay to the system that generates large funding differences between wealthy and impoverished communities. Differences between the amount of funding exist among states and school districts within each state. In 1998, for example, the state with the highest average of public school funding was New Jersey, with an annual funding rate of $8,801 per student. Utah had the lowest amount of public school funding, with a rate of $3,804 per student.  With the differences between the amount of money for public school funding, a student attending a public school in New Jersey was provided more than twice the resources than a student in Utah received. (Biddle). On the other hand, according to Dan Lips who is a senior policy analyst, and Shanea Watkins who is a former policy analyst in Empirical Studies, history has shown why lack of funding is a problem in public education today, and how spending on public education is actually very high. “Between 1994 and 2004, average per-pupil expenditures in American public schools have increased by 23.5 percent. Between 1984 and 2004, real expenditures per pupil increased by 49 percent. These increases follow the historical trend of ever-increasing real per-student expenditures in the nation’s public schools” (Lips). Even though funding is very high, it is actually not distributed equally, which causes several schools to not receive enough funding. The amount of funding public education receives is based on the income and economic values of where schools and people of the community are located. Great Recession: The Great Recession during the late 2000’s and early 2010’s, had an impact on public schools education, causing an decrease in funding. This was a period of general economic decline that was observed in the world markets. The Great Recession led to the government having to set up new laws, creating less funding for public education across the United States. “Therefore, the fiscal crisis now faced by state governments in the wake of the recession, and similar budgetary problems just beginning to surface at the local level, are likely to have profound effects on the nation’s public schools” (Evans). With all funding coming from the government, the Great Recession created a challenge for the funding of public education. Funding would decrease for public schools, due to the decline of economics in the United States. States had to reduce their funding, which led to an even more greater gap between rich and poor school districts. With this, some school districts had faced lawsuits on whether or not the school districts had invested enough education. With the Great Recession having a huge affect, laws were created in order to help funding not be eliminated fully. “During the Great Recession, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act allowed states to keep up their funding. But they’ve had more freedom to decrease spending since that act expired” (McIntire) The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) had ended the Great Recession in 2009, but wasn’t as helpful. According to Lindsey Burke, who researches and writes on federal and state education issues, “As of March 2010, $36.2 billion in ARRA education funding remains unspent. Still, in April 2010, Senator Tom Harkin introduced the Keep Our Educators Working Act, which would provide $23 billion in additional funding to the Department of Education…” (Burke).  The funding that was put toward education was not being used for schools. The ARRA was not ready to be used yet, and the adding of more money did not help due to the testing of the new act. During the Great Recession, funding for public education did not increase. The decline in economics of the country led funding to decrease, making it even harder to receive more funding for public education. Public education today Funding for public education is inequitable across the United States, where schools are now lacking the funds for different school programs, which affects students. “Inequitable per-pupil spending perpetuated by regressive state and local school-finance systems remains cause for concern in U.S. public schools, despite state aid formulas designed to work to the contrary” (Kuczynski-Brown).  Lack of funding for public education is a serious problem in today’s society that is creating negative effects on students. This inequitable funding in the US public schools contributes to the underachievement of low income and minority students. Even Valerie Strauss who covers education and runs The Answer Sheet blog for the Washington Post agrees that there is an unfair and uneven public school funding across the country. For example, the differences between funding in different states is appalling. In 2013, Utah had $6,555 per pupil, and in New York theirs was $19,818 (Brown).  This unbalance of funding has led to serious consequences. For instance, the cuts made led to job losses, due to the struggle to make up for state funding cuts. It is hard for school districts to raise additional money through the property tax to make up for cuts in state fundings (Leachman). It can be extremely difficult and even restricted to do so. Furthemore, state cuts for public education have slowed the economy. The cuts being made, slowed down the economic recovery by reducing economic activity since the recession ended. Teachers, programs, and contracts with other businesses had to be cut off. Large cuts in funding for basic education is a problem, with several consequences that needs to be fixed. The Solution The unbalance of funding for public education throughout the United States needs to be solved.  New ideas and solutions are needed in order for the cuts to be over. “Federal and state policymakers should implement Education reforms designed to improve resource allocation and boost student performance.” (Lips) Reforms need to be made in order for funding to increase. The states need to check their funding system and revise the formulas used to decide on the funding. In order for students to be successful, they need the right tools to learn. With no funding for their schools, they won’t be able to receive a good quality education. There needs to be an equal and fair distribution of public school funding, where a resolution needs to take place.