Introduction: InThe United states the prevalence of those whom are overweight began to risefrom 5% in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (1971-1974)to 5.2% in The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (1976-1980),but jumped to an astonishing 12.8% in NHANES III (1988-1994) and since hascontinued to increase. Childhood obesity has a few influences, which includebut are not limited to family history, psychological factors andlifestyle.
In psychology, developmentsfrom lifestyles are considered to be nurture, whereas developments from familyhistory are considered to be nature. Under the umbrella of nature there are many genetic syndromes anddisorder such as Bardet-Biedi and Prader-Willi syndrome that can affect thehealth of an individual. When speaking upon the side of nurture theenvironmental impact is greatly linked to childhood obesity through physicalactivity, and the diet of the child.
First known as the Prader-Labhart-WilliSyndrome after three Swiss doctors Andrea Prader, Alexis Labhart and HeinrichWilli who described the disorder in 1956. A group of smaller children weredepicted as obese; short in stature had a frequent desire to eat because theywere consistently hungry. The syndrome is known to affect all childrenregardless of race, and gender. Upon completing research there was anindication that this syndrome could be caused due to genetic abnormalitieslocated within chromosome 15. The research stated that roughly two thirds ofthe disorder is caused by the paternal parent missing pieces of chromosome 15,on the contrary thirty percent of these cases the chromosomes are inheriteddirectly from the mother instead of having one from each parent.
The hypothalamus,which is a portion of the brain, is where the dysfunction typically occurs. Thehypothalamus has many responsibilities, some which include but are not limitedto regulating hunger and satiety, bodily temperature, and emotions. The hypothalamushappens to be a part of the system known as Endocrine.
In1922 Laurence-Moon (Bardet) Biedl syndrome was defined as an “autosomalrecessive disorder characterized by structural and functional abnormalities oforgans and tissues with diverse embryonic derivation” (MC Kiuglin, TG 1967).Bardet Biedl Syndrome reduces the function of the kidneys, aids in obesity aswell as polydactyl. When the term “Apple-Shaped” is used it’s referring to fatthat is disproportionately distributed onto the abdomen and chest rather thanthe leg and arms. At birth children have a normal weight but by the age of onethe appearance or the signs of Bardet-Biedl syndrome are visible.
Similarto Barder-Biedl syndrome, Carl- Henry Alstrom, in 1959 described Alstrom syndrome.The syndrome is an also another genetic disease that effects parts of the bodyand can be linked to childhood obesity. In specifically in some instances whenindividuals have and enlarged heart