The United states the prevalence of those whom are overweight began to rise
from 5% in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (1971-1974)
to 5.2% in The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (1976-1980),
but jumped to an astonishing 12.8% in NHANES III (1988-1994) and since has
continued to increase. Childhood obesity has a few influences, which include
but are not limited to family history, psychological factors and
lifestyle. In psychology, developments
from lifestyles are considered to be nurture, whereas developments from family
history are considered to be nature.
Under the umbrella of nature there are many genetic syndromes and
disorder such as Bardet-Biedi and Prader-Willi syndrome that can affect the
health of an individual. When speaking upon the side of nurture the
environmental impact is greatly linked to childhood obesity through physical
activity, and the diet of the child.
First known as the Prader-Labhart-Willi
Syndrome after three Swiss doctors Andrea Prader, Alexis Labhart and Heinrich
Willi who described the disorder in 1956. A group of smaller children were
depicted as obese; short in stature had a frequent desire to eat because they
were consistently hungry. The syndrome is known to affect all children
regardless of race, and gender. Upon completing research there was an
indication that this syndrome could be caused due to genetic abnormalities
located within chromosome 15. The research stated that roughly two thirds of
the disorder is caused by the paternal parent missing pieces of chromosome 15,
on the contrary thirty percent of these cases the chromosomes are inherited
directly from the mother instead of having one from each parent. The hypothalamus,
which is a portion of the brain, is where the dysfunction typically occurs. The
hypothalamus has many responsibilities, some which include but are not limited
to regulating hunger and satiety, bodily temperature, and emotions. The hypothalamus
happens to be a part of the system known as Endocrine.
1922 Laurence-Moon (Bardet) Biedl syndrome was defined as an “autosomal
recessive disorder characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of
organs and tissues with diverse embryonic derivation” (MC Kiuglin, TG 1967).
Bardet Biedl Syndrome reduces the function of the kidneys, aids in obesity as
well as polydactyl. When the term “Apple-Shaped” is used it’s referring to fat
that is disproportionately distributed onto the abdomen and chest rather than
the leg and arms. At birth children have a normal weight but by the age of one
the appearance or the signs of Bardet-Biedl syndrome are visible.
to Barder-Biedl syndrome, Carl- Henry Alstrom, in 1959 described Alstrom syndrome.
The syndrome is an also another genetic disease that effects parts of the body
and can be linked to childhood obesity. In specifically in some instances when
individuals have and enlarged heart