International 7.67 km per second. Hence, its orbital period

InternationalSpace Station (ISS)Introduction:TheInternational Space Station (ISS) is a man-made satellite which was launchedinto the low earth orbit in 1998.

This space station is suitable for living wherea crew of 6 members can live and can be used until 2028. The low earth orbit,having an orbit of nearly 711km, has an orbital period from 84 to 127 minutes. TheInternational Space Station has an orbital speed of 7.67 km per second. Hence,its orbital period is 711/7.67 ~ 92.65 minutes.

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So, this makes (24*60)/92.65 =15.54 orbits per day.

With a length of 72.8m and a width of 108.5m, the ISSweighs more than 4 lakh kgs making it the largest artificial body revolving inthe low earth orbit such a person standing on the earth’s surface can see itdirectly with his naked eye. Many countries like the United States, Russia,Japan and some European countries were a part of its construction. TheInternational Space Station is as big as a football ground, having a volume ofnearly a 5 bedroom house. History:          The International Space Station (ISS) was the idea of theUnited States but later constructed and developed by many other countries formingtheir own space agencies. It had its roots in the 1940s when astronauts realizedthat the construction of such a huge space station and living in micro gravityare possible. In the year 1984, the then President of USA, Ronald Reaganinstructed the NASA officials to build the ISS.

As the construction was huge,they designed the parts of the space station and decided to assemble them inthe space itself. ·       The first segment of the InternationalSpace Station, named Zarya (also known as Functional Cargo Block) was launchedon November 20, 1998 on a Russian proton rocket in Kazakhstan. Being built inMoscow, it took 4 years i.e. from December 1994 to January 1998, for them tobuild the module.  The main aim of Zaryawas to provide the space station with electrical power, propulsion, communications,guidance and storage to the ISS.·       Within 15 days, on December 4, 1998, thefirst U.S built component, Unity, was launched.

This component is completelydedicated for the assembly of the station. Having a cylindrical shape, thismodule provided the ISS with many resources like fluids, environmental controland life support systems as well as data systems. ·       On 12th July, 2000, anothermodule which made the station usable for scientists to live was launched anddocked with the International Space Station. It made the station habitable fora 6 member crew. It also provides controls, navigation and guidance. It isknown as Zevada or Service Module (SM) or DOS-8.

·       On 2nd November, 2000, threescientists resided in the space station for many months. These are the first toreside in ISS.·       On 7th February, 2001, theUnited States launched its own module named Destiny or the U.S. Lab whichserves as the primary research center for U.S.

payloads.·       On 15th July, 2001, another pressurizedmodule named Quest airlock was launched hich stores the crew lock, spacesuitsand equipment. ·       On 14th September, 2001,Russian airlock docking module named Pirs or Mini-Research Module was launchedwhose main purpose was to store and service as well as to provide connectionbetween ISS and the already existing but inhabitant mir station.

·       With unity as Node 1, the United Stateson 23rd October, 2007 (7 years after Node-1) launched its Node-2i.e, the Harmony module. It serves as the utility hub for the United Statesspace agency. It acts as a central connecting point providing connection toother components and bus electronic data. ·       Node 3 or Tranquility was launched bythe United States on 8th February, 2008 to support life and recyclewaste water.

With the advancement in technology, this is used for theproduction of oxygen.·       On the same day of Tranquility launchi.e. 8th February, 2008, European Space Agency joined the spacestation and launched its first ever European module and European primaryresearch center. Also, it is the first ever module to conduct research experimentsin the fields of biology and fluid physics. The module is named as Columbus.·       With Europe coming aboard, Japan Spaceagency also joins the International Space Station. On 11th March,2008, Japan launched its first ever named Kibo.

It is also the largest ISSmodule. It is also used for observations in medicine, biology, communicationsand biotechnology. ·       On 12th November, 2009, 8yearsafter launching the Pir module, Russian airlock docking module named Poisk orMini-Research Module – 2 was launched whose main purpose was to store andservice as well as to provide connection between ISS and the already existingbut inhabitant mir station.·       On 8th February, 2010, theEuropean Space Agency (ESA) launched its second module Cupola and attached withTranquility. Having 7 windows, Cupola is used for docking and observations ofearth.

·       On 14th May, 2010, Russialaunched its module Rassvet or the Mini – Research Module 1 which is used forthe purpose of cargo storage as well as docking. ·       On 24th February, 2011,European Space Agency launched another pressurized module named Leonardo or thePermanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) which is being attached with Tranquilityand used for storage of spares, supplies as well as waste.·       On 10th April, 2016, BigelowExpandable Activity Module (BEAM), an experimental module, was docked with theInternational Space Station to act as a docking station and commercial spacestation. ·       On 18th July, 2016,International Docking Adapter (IDA) was launched. ·       The components are scheduled to launchin 2018 and 2019 as well with some of them having postponed dates.Purpose:TheISS serves as an orbiting laboratory for the scientists as well as NASA to livethere and for research purposes.

The space station is constructed in the spaceitself by arranging the parts. It is being used as a space environment researchlaboratory to perform experiments in almost all the fields of science rangingfrom human biology, astrology and meteorology and even many other fields. Thescientists use it as a home/laboratory to study about habitable environment inspace and working there. Themain purpose of the International Space Station is to conduct experiments aboutexploring other worlds and travelling there. It is the first step, by the spaceagencies of United States and Russia, in travelling to other places and forfuture operations like Moon, Mars as well as asteroids.

The International SpaceStation acts as a stage/base for the scientists to conduct experiments in spacewhich they cannot do on the surface of the earth. This helps them to researchon the benefits of the people for helping their day-to-day life. The results ofthe research are called “spinoffs”. It is also helpful for them to studyabout the concept of micro gravity and its effect on human beings when theylive there for a longer duration.

Apart from this, the ISS also serves as anobservational platform for astronomical, geographical and environmental study.It also aids for educational, diplomatic and commercial services. Assembly:          The astronauts found that ISS is helpful and suitable for ahabitable life due to microgravity. The International Space Station is situatedin the low earth orbit at an altitude of around 330 and 435 km from the surfacewhich makes the earth’s gravity weaker and makes the bodies in this orbit feelweightless. The ISS helped the scientists to explore more about fluids, wastemanagement, water recycling, cosmic dust and dark matter in the space.

          ISS’s assembly, as discussed earlier, started in 1998 withZarya and continued till the additions of other modules by European SpaceAgency and Russian Space Agency. Each module added has its own purposes whichmight be for the benefits of a country or might be for researching in aparticular field which are useful in the day-to-day lives of human beings. TheUnity module was specially designed and dedicated for the assembly itself. Allthe modules were sent from different places using the space shuttles named STS.Till now, a total of 134 STSs were launched.Life on ISS:          As mentioned earlier, the ISS can have a crew of 6 membersonboard. Every day, they involve in a mission control meeting followed by aninspection. The crew works same as on the earth.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)is used as the standard time for reference. As the ISS completes 15.54 orbitsper day, the crew will have nearly 15-16 sunrises and sunsets Zvezda andHarmony modules provide berthing for the crew. All kinds of facilities areavailable for the crew. Taking care of oxygen and carbon dioxide is a must andalso the crew can sleep freely floating which is avoided due to the equipmentin the space station. All astronauts mus t do a minimum of 2 hours exercise inthe space station. Food which can be preserved for higher number of days and oflow weight is carried. Waste management and water management systems arepresent in Zvezda and Tranquility.

Facts of ISS:·       Starting in the year, ISS had 54expeditions; 55th is already planned.·       It is inhabited by 200+ astronauts andscientists, with a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 6 in each expedition.·       Till now, 134 STSs were launched. Out ofthem, 133 were successfully launched.

·       The ISS is the single item with a highexpenditure.·       It weighs 93,000 pounds and has 32000+cubic feet of pressurized volume.·       It is in orbit for more than 19 yearsand is habited for more than 17 years.·       The Waste Water treatment alone makes thecrew of ISS less dependent on water by nearly about 34%.·       It orbits the earth every 90 minutes. Itsees 16 sunrises and sunsets per day.·       It has 8 miles of electrical powercables.

·       The ISS has an area equal to that of afootball ground.·       It is the largest human-made satellite;can be seen directly from earth.·       52 computers are being used to control thespace station. ·       Oxygen is generated using the process ofelectrolysis     MirSpace StationIntroduction:          The space station Mir became a legend in its own timereflecting Russia’s past space glories and her future as a leader in space. TheRussian Space Station Mir endured 15 years in orbit, three times its plannedlifetime. It outlasted the Soviet Union that launched it into space.

It hostedscores of crewmembers and international visitors. It raised the first crop ofwheat to be grown from seed to seed in outer space. It was the scene of joyousreunions, feats of courage, moments of panic, and months of grim determination.

It suffered dangerous fires, a nearly catastrophic collision, and darkenedperiods of out-of-control tumbling.Mir soared as a symbol ofRussia’s past space glories and her potential future as a leader in space. Andit served as the stage—history’s highest stage—for the first large-scale,technical partnership between Russia and the United States after a half-centuryof mutual antagonism. Mir did all of that and like most legends wascontroversial and paradoxical. At different times and by different people, Mirwas called both “venerable” and “derelict.” It was also”robust,” “accident-prone,” and “a marvel,” aswell as “a lemon.

“After more than 86,000 total orbits, Mirre-entered Earth’s atmosphere on Friday, March 23, 2001, at 9 a.m. Moscow time.

The 134-ton space structure broke up over the southern Pacific Ocean. Some ofits larger pieces blazed harmlessly into the sea, about 1,800 miles east of NewZealand. Observers in Fiji reported spectacular gold- and white-streaminglights. An amazing saga and a highly successful program finally had come to awatery end.

After the Russian space stationmoved into its second decade, the Mir became notorious as an accident-pronespacecraft, even as it remained unparalleled in continuous service. A 15-minutefire in an oxygen-generating device imperilled the station in February 1997.Failures of the Electron electrolysis oxygen-generating units and problems withattitude and environmental controls often seemed to alternate with computermalfunctions and power outages. The June 1997 collision with the Progresssupply vehicle breached the integrity of the Spektr’s hull and rendered thatmodule uninhabitable. But, Mir remained; and its space explorers endured. Overits lifetime, the space station hosted 125 cosmonauts and astronauts from 12different nations. It supported 17 space expeditions, including 28 long-termcrews.

Its residents arrived via the 31 spacecraft that docked with Mir; nineof the dockings involved the Space Shuttle. Additionally, 64 uncrewed cargovessels ferried supplies and equipment periodically to Mir. And, it served as afloating laboratory for 23,000 scientific and medical experiments.Although Mir was gone by early2001 and the International Space Station (ISS) was growing rapidly in orbit,the U.

S. and Russia were still using spacecraft as statecraft. On March 23—thesame day as Mir’s deorbit—Russia expelled four U.S.

diplomats and said it wouldexpel 46 more, in retaliation for the American expulsion of 50 Russiandiplomats for espionage-like activities. It wasn’t the Cold War, all overagain, but international tensions were certainly continuing, and the needremained for a worthy program for U.S. and Russian cooperation.Mir Base BlockThe Mir Base Block (core module) evolved from theearlier Soviet Salyut to serve as the heart of the space station.

Launched inFebruary 1986, the 13.1-meter-long, 20.4-metric ton core contained the primaryliving and working area, and life support and power, as well as the maincomputer, communications, and control equipment—all in 90 cubic meters ofhabitable volume. Mir’s environment was generally maintained at temperatures of64°F to 82°F and humidity of 20 to 70 percent. The core had four maincompartments.The Working Compartment wasactually two cylinders connected by a conical section. It provided operationsand living areas. Operations included monitoring, command, and scientificactivities.

The living area provided the necessities for long-durationmissions, including a galley with a table, cooking elements, trash storage; abicycle exerciser and treadmill with medical monitoring equipment; videoequipment; and individual crew areas, each with a porthole, hinged chair, andsleeping bag. The personal hygiene area, with toilet and sink, was located inone end of the working compartment. Mir had several portholes, with shuttersoutside to protect them from orbital debris impacts. Two television screenspermitted face-to-face communications with the ground. Four more televisionscreens monitored the other Mir modules.The Transfer Compartment was aspherical structure at the front end of Mir, providing one end-docking port forvisiting spacecraft, plus four radial berthing ports, set in a 90-degreearrangement, for access to the station’s added modules. An approaching moduleused the Kurs (course) automatic docking system to dock with the forward port.

Crews could then use the module’s manipulator arm system to move it to a radialport, thus freeing the forward port for future use. The Transfer Compartmenthad no simulated “up and down” indicators; it was an area of Mirwhere astronauts reported sensations of disorientation.The non-pressurized AssemblyCompartment, on the other end of the Base Block, contained the station’s mainengine and fuel tanks; it supported antennas, lights, and optical sensors. Thepressurized Intermediate Compartment tunnelled through the Assembly Compartmentto connect the Working Compartment to the aft docking port, where the Kvant-1module was permanently docked.KvantIKvant means “quantum.” When Kvant-1 wasdocked permanently to Mir’s aft docking port in April 1987, it increased Mir’susable volume and expanded its scientific capabilities. Kvant-1 supportedresearch in the physics of galaxies, quasars, and neutron stars by measuringelectromagnetic emissions.

The module also supported biotechnology experimentsand had some station control and life support functions. The 11-metric tonKvant-1 measured 4.4 meters by 6.3 meters long, with 40 cubic meters ofpressurized volume. The module was equipped with six gyro dynes that providedaccurate pointing of the station and significantly reduced the amount of fuelused for attitude control.

Its aft docking port was available for Soyuz andProgress vehicles.KvantIIKvant-2 was a scientific andairlock module, providing biological research, Earth observations, andextravehicular activity capabilities.The Kvant-2 enhanced Mir with drinkingwater and oxygen provisions, motion control systems, and power distribution, aswell as shower and washing facilities. Its airlock contained a self-sustainedcosmonaut manoeuvring unit that increased the range and complexity ofextravehicular activity tasks. The 19.6-metric ton Kvant-2 measured 4.4 metersby 13.7 meters long with 61.

3 cubic meters of volume and 27.4 meters of solararrays. It was the first module equipped with the Lyappa manipulator arm, usedto move the modules after they docked with Mir. The Kvant-2 docked with Mir inNovember 1989.KristallKristall means “crystal.

” This modulesupported biological and materials production technologies in the microgravityenvironment. These included semiconductors, cellular substances, and medicines.Kristall also supported astrophysical and technical experiments.

It had aradial docking port, originally designed as a means of docking the RussianShuttle-type orbiter Buran, and was used for the first STS-71 docking in 1995.Added in June 1990, the 19.6-metric ton Kristall measured 4.4 meters by 13meters long, with 60.8 cubic meters of volume and 36-meters of solar arrays.SpektrSpektr means “spectrum,” and thismodule allowed for better investigations and monitoring of Earth’s naturalresources and atmosphere.

Spektr also supported research into biotechnology,life sciences, materials science, and space technologies. American astronautssometimes used Spektr as their living quarters. Launched in May 1995 duringNorm Taggard’s mission to Mir, Spektr carried more than 1,600 pounds of U., mainly for biomedical research. Included with its arrival were twopairs of solar arrays to boost power to the station and a Lyappa manipulatorarm to assist in moving the modules on Mir. The 19.3-metric ton Spektr modulemeasured 14.4 meters by 4.4 meters, with a pressurized volume of 62 cubicmeters, and had four solar arrays.

On June 25, 1997, an uncrewed Progressresupply vehicle collided with the Spektr module, causing solar array and hulldamage, and depressurization. The Mir crew closed the hatch to the leakingSpektr, preventing further pressure loss on board Mir. PrirodaPriroda means “nature,” and thismodule’s main purpose was Earth remote-sensing including the weather; theocean-atmosphere system; land, mineral, and crop conditions; and humankind’simpacts and opportunities in the environment.

Priroda also collected informationfrom remote-sensor buoys in nuclear power, seismic activity, and other areas tocreate an integrated monitoring and warning system. Launched in April 1996,Priroda, the last of the Mir modules arrived during Shannon Lucid’s stay onMir. The 19.7-metric ton Priroda measured 4.4 meters by 12 meters long and hada pressurized volume of 66 cubic meters.Docking ModuleThe Russian-built DockingModule was delivered by STS-74 on November 14, 1995. Attached to the Kristall,the Docking Module (DM) provided clearance for the Shuttle to dock easily withMir without interference from the station’s solar panels.

The DM featured apressure-sealed body and an androgynous peripheral docking system (APDS),compatible with the Kristall and Shuttle Orbiter docking systems (ODS).The Shuttle ODS, an external airlock extension, was fitted to the forwardpayload bay bulkhead and was accessible by the crew via the mid-deck airlock.When docked, the APDS provided locking, structural stiffness, and an airtightseal between the two structures. The DM was 4.7 meters long fromtip to tip of the identical APDSs on either end; its diameter was 2.

2 meters;and weighed approximately 4.1 metric tons. The module carried to the Mir twosolar arrays: one Russian and one jointly developed by the U.S. and Russia toaugment Mir’s power supply.

The DM carried the arrays retracted and stowed tobe later deployed by cosmonauts.Facts of Mir:·       Mir’s construction involved 280 soviet statecompanies.·       It was the first major international spacestation and also the first of its kind to have a friendly relation withincountries.·       It had 23000+ scientific experiments.·       Launched in 1986, it consisted of only abase block. Laboratories, docking modules and living spaces were added later.·       ISS used the first modular design for anorbit by Mir.·       It conducted the first study on long-termweightlessness effects on human body.·       It was designed for 5 years, but itoperated for 15 years.·       It was the largest at that time and theonly station to perform experiments and conduct researches, mainly onradiations.·       Right from its launch, it had 28expeditions.·       It was inhabited by 76 astronauts andscientists, with a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 5 in each expedition.