India-United India was cold and often thorny. This was

India-United states relationsOrigin and nature  India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the internationalrelations that exist between the Republic ofIndia and the United States of America.

Prominent leaders of India’s freedom movement had friendly relationswith the United States of America which continued well after independence fromGreat Britain in 1947. In 1954, United States of America made Pakistan aCentral Treaty Organization (CENTO) treaty-ally. India cultivated strategicand military relations with the Soviet Union tocounter Pakistan–United Statesrelations. In 1961, India became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement toavoid involvement in the Cold War power-play between the United States and theSoviet Union.

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The Nixon administration’s support for Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971affectedrelations till the dissolution of the Soviet Union in1991. In the 1990s, Indian foreign policy adaptedto the unipolar world anddeveloped closer ties with the United States. In the 21st century, Indian foreign policy has sought to leverageIndia’s strategic autonomy in order to safeguard sovereign rights and promotenational interests within a multi-polar world. Under Presidents Bush and Obama,the United States has demonstrated accommodation to India’s core nationalinterests and acknowledged outstanding concerns. A unique feature of thisrelation is that U.S. is the world’s oldest constitutional republic, whileIndia is the world’s largest republic.

 Increase in bilateral trade & investment, cooperation on global security matters, inclusion of India indecision-making on matters of global governance (United Nations Security Council),upgraded representation in trade & investment forums (World Bank, IMF, APEC), admissioninto multilateral export control regimes (Nuclear Suppliers Group, MTCR, Wassenaar Arrangement, Australia Group) and joint-manufacturing through technologysharing arrangements have become key milestones and a measure of speed andadvancement on the path to closer US-India relations.  In 2016, India and United States signed the Logistics ExchangeMemorandum of Agreement and India was declared a Major Defense Partner ofthe United States.12According to Gallup’s annual World Affairs survey, India is perceivedby Americans as their 6th favorite nation in the world, with71% of Americans viewing India favorably in 2015  Points motivated for choosing the topic  ·            The relationships between India in the days ofthe British Raj and the US were thinbut still in the 1930s and early 1940s the United States gave very strongsupport to the Indian independence movement in defiance of the British Empire.

·            After Indian independence and until the end ofthe Cold War, the relationship between theUS and India was cold and often thorny. This was due to the closeness of the UStowards India’s arch-rival Pakistan during the War, with Pakistan joining theUS-led Western Bloc in 1954. India’spolicy of being not aligned with either the US orthe Soviet Union, but maintaining close tieswith the latter, also impacted relations. American officials perceived India’spolicy of non-alignment negatively.·            Following the assassination of Kennedy in 1963, Indo-US relationsdeteriorated gradually. While Kennedy’s successor Lyndon Johnson sought to maintainrelations with India to counter Communist China, he also sought tostrengthen ties with Pakistan with the hopes of easing tensions with China andweakening India’s growing military buildup as well.

·            In the late 1970s, with the anti-Soviet Janata Party leader MorarjiDesai becoming the Prime Minister, India improved itsrelations with the US, now led by Jimmy Carter, despite the latter signingan order in 1978 barring nuclear material from being exported to India due toIndia’s non-proliferation record.·            Despite the return of Indira Gandhi to power in 1980,the relations between the two countries continued to improve gradually,although India did not support the United States in its role in the Soviet invasion and occupation of Afghanistan. The Reagan Administration provided limitedassistance to India.

    Literature review1)Ash NarainRoy, in his article, “Indo-US and India-Russia: Strategic PartnersAH” , has described the India’s growing flirtation with the United Statesand its continuing romance with Russia in the post cold war era no longersurprises any one such is the cold logic of the 21^’ Century global politicsthat wearing several hats comes easily to many countries including India. Hesays that both the US and Russia consider India to be their natural ally. Incontrast with Washington, Russia accepts India’s 47 pre-eminence in the regionit does not interfere in India’s relationship with its neighbours, much less itmakes China responsible for keeping peace in South Asia.Ash Narain Roy,”Indo- US and India- Russia: Strategic Partners All”. Mainstream Dec.25-31.

2009. 2) India has ratchetedup the pressure on US diplomats in Delhi as the deadline nears for theindictment of an Indian envoy in New York charged with visa fraud andunderpaying a maid.Washington has been told that restaurants and otherfacilities at the social club in its Delhi embassy will have to close tonon-diplomats and that inquiries into the tax affairs of US staff will be pursuedaggressively.The Guardian “India cracks down on US embassy club in diplomatic row”..

8 January 2014.3)There is a constant attempt by Western, especially American, strategicanalysts and think tanks to disentangle the seemingly complex threads ofIndia’s foreign policy. The political establishments of the United States andother major Western powers have lately shifted their policies vis-a-vis Indiain an endeavour to draw New Delhi closer to them as part of their ongoingattempt to re-align the balance in South and South East Asia.

 Indian Express “Retaining India’s StrategicAutonomy”.  8 September2015.4)In 1948,Nehru rejected American suggestions for resolving the Kashmir crisis via thirdparty mediation.

His 1949 tour of the US was “an undiplomaticdisaster” that left bad feelings on both sides.24 Indiarejected the American advice that it not recognise the Communist conquest ofChina, but it did back the US when it supported the 1950 United Nationsresolution condemning North Korea’s aggression in the Korean War. India triedto act as a broker to help end that war, and served as a conduit for diplomaticmessages between the US and China H.W.Brands, Inside the Cold War (1991) p 202-5, quote p 2045)In the first dozen years of Indian independence (1947–1959), the USprovided $1.7 billion in aid, including $931 million in food. The Soviet Unionprovided about half as much in monetary terms, however made much largercontributions in kind, taking the form of infrastructural aid, soft loans,technical knowledge transfer, economic planning and skills involved in theareas of steel mills, machinebuilding, hydro-electric power andother heavy industries especially nuclear energy and space research.

 In 1961, the US pledged $1.0 billion in developmentloans, in addition to $1.3 billion of free food Richard P.Stebbins, The United States in World Affairs: 1961(1962) p 208 Currentsituation At present, India and the US share an extensive and expanding cultural,strategic, military, and economic relationship which is in the phase ofimplementing confidencebuilding measures (CBM) to overcome the legacy of trust deficit -brought about by adversarial US foreign policies  and multipleinstances of technology denial  – which have plagued the relationshipover several decades. Unrealistic expectations after the conclusion of the2008 U.S.–IndiaCivil Nuclear Agreement (which underestimated negative public opinionregarding the long-term viability of nuclear power generation and civil-societyendorsement for contractual guarantees on safeguards and liability) has givenway to pragmatic realism and refocus on areas of cooperation which enjoyfavourable political and electoral consensus.Key recent developments include the rapid growth of India’s economy,closer ties between the Indian and American industries especially in theInformation and communications technology (ICT), engineering and medicalsectors, an informal entente tomanage an increasingly assertive China,robust cooperation on counter-terrorism, the deterioration of U.

S.-Pakistan relations,easing of export controls over dual-use goods & technologies (99% oflicenses applied for are now approved), and reversal of long-standing Americanopposition to India’s strategic program.Income creation in the USA through knowledge-based employment by AsianIndians has outpaced every other ethnic group according to U.S.

Census data. Growingfinancial and political clout of the affluent Asian Indian diaspora is noteworthy. Indian Americanhouseholds are the most prosperous in the USA with a median revenue ofUS$100,000, followed by Chinese Americans at US$65000. The average householdrevenue in the USA is US$50000.  US and India continue to differ on issues ranging from trade to civilliberties. The Indian Home Ministry, through an affidavit submitted to theDelhi High Court on 13 February 2015, claimed that Country Reports on Rights& Practices have become instruments of foreign policy: “The US, UK andEU have clearly mentioned in government documents and pronouncements that thesereports are made for the purpose of their being used as instruments of foreignpolicy.” The affidavit also claimed that the reports by US, UK andEuropean Parliament were biased since they “do not provide opportunity tothe Government of India or the local embassy/high commission to record theiropinion and are heavily biased against the targeted country”. President Barack Obama became the first USpresident to be the chief guest of the 66th Republic Day celebrations of Indiaheld on 26 January 2015.

 India and the US held their first ever bilateraldialogue on the UN and multilateral issues in the spirit of the “DelhiDeclaration of Friendship” that strengthens and expands the two countries’relationship as part of the Post-2015 Development Agenda .On June 26 Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited US and metPresident Donald Trump. On 8 November 2017, US hasannounced a grant of nearly USD 500,000 for organisations which can come upwith ideas and projects to promote religious freedom in India and Sri Lanka.Lessons learnt and recommendation forfuture·                       The United States is one of India’s largest direct investors.

From 1991 to 2004, the stock of FDI inflow has increased from USD $11.3 millionto $344.4 million, and totaling $4.13 billion.

This is a compound rate increaseof 57.5 percent annually. Indian direct investments abroad began in 1992, andIndian corporations and registered partnership firms are now allowed to investin businesses up to 100 percent of their net worth. India’s largest outgoinginvestments are in the manufacturing sector, which accounts for 54.8 percent ofthe country’s foreign investments. The second largest are in non-financialservices (software development), accounting for 35.4 percent of investments.

·                       The US is India’s second largest trading partner, and India is its 11th largest trading partner. In 2015, the US exported$21.5 billion worth of goods to India, and imported $44.8 billion worth ofIndian goods .Major items imported from India include information technology services, textiles, machinery, gems and diamonds, chemicals, iron and steel products, coffee, tea, and other edible foodproducts. Major American items imported by India include aircraft, fertilisers, computerhardware, scrap metal, and medical equipment.

·                        TheUnited States is also India’s largest investment partner, with a directinvestment of $9 billion (accounting for 9 percent of total foreigninvestment). Americans have made notable foreign investments in the Asiancountry’s power generation, telecommunications, ports, roads, petroleumexploration and processing, and mining industries. American importsfrom India amounted to $46.6 billion or 2% of its overall imports, and 15.

3% ofIndia’s overall exports in 2015. Americanexports to India amounted to $20.5 billion or 5.2% of India’s overall importsin 2015.

·                       In the past, it could be seen thatmaintaining friendly relations with the USA is beneficial for any nation (andit’s no different for india ) . With all this new strategy and plans , therelationship between USA and India is going to be stronger than before andalliance of the two nations can be useful for the trade and revenue between thetwo nations.·                 In conclusion, it appears highly likely that in strategic, political,security, defence and economic terms, relations between India and the USA willcontinue their upward trajectory under President Trump. Impact of USA’srelations with Pakistan on India is likely to be beneficial and positive. Asfar as implications for India with respect to USA’s evolving relations withChina and Russia are concerned, it will be better to wait for furtherdenouements to unfold.

Relations between these countries with the USA arecomplex and multi-faceted. It is too early to speculate how they will evolveand what ramifications they might entail for India.