In order to improve the organization’s overall business process which includes the quality of products and services, a methodical approach called Total Quality Management is used(H.C. Lau, M.A. Idris, 2001. This integrated program is used to gain competitive advantages through continuous improvement in every aspects of organizational culture. Hence TCQ is an integrated management philosophy which emphasizes :
teamwork and employee involvement
meeting customers’ needs
continuous analysis of results
closer connection with suppliers, and so on (Oke, M. A., & Oke, O. D., 2014).
Implementing the programs like total quality management has become an effective strategy in order to improve the quality of goods and services (Tata, J., & Prasad, S., 1998).
Among the organizations where total quality management (TQM) practices were adopted and systematically executed with sufficient top management control, the corresponding competitive advantages achieved is high (Thomas J. Douglas and William Q. Judge Jr., 2001). Yet many organizations fail to execute the program successfully.
Among the researches based on the surveys, the major concern was to find what makes the TQM work. The failures in TQM initiatives due to lack of information and data on the critical success factors etc, made the researchers to examine the problems associated with its implementation. They suggest that through TQM programs, less than half of the organizations have observed significant improvement. This can result even in the collapse of the previous system that existed before the implementing the Total Quality Management program(H.C. Lau, M.A. Idris, 2001). Hence they fail to bring sustained changes in the organization. They become a trend which will soon be replaced by another trend. The gap between the top management’s expressions on their targets for TQM and the reality in execution of this in different subunits of the organization resulted in failure to institutionalize TQM. As the quality of management varies in various subunits, this gap also varies. Quality of management means the ability of top sections of the institution to
(1) develop dedication to the new TQM course and
(2) take actions and make decisions that are stable with it
(3) develop leadership skills and team bond necessary for QM implementation, and
(4) create a space for open conversations about the progress in TQM transformation which will help to learn and make further changes (Michael Beer, 2003).
The researches indicates that the major barriers in implementing TQM are :
· inadequate human capital development and coordination
· insufficient quality planning
· lack of leadership and resources for TQM
· lack of focus and direction on customer
(Sebastianelli, R., & Tamimi, N., 2003 & Bhat, K. S., & Rajashekhar, J., 2009).
If these barriers are properly analyzed and understood, then it is possible to form a
structure to assess the relative significance of management-related barriers for the success of TQM and to guide in developing policies for a productive quality transformation.
The prime objective of TQM programs is to improvise the Business performance by
· supply quality management,
· employee participation, recognition and reward
· quality system management
Oke, M. A., & Oke, O. D. (2014) suggested that management should try to upgrade themselves on the different TQM practices in order to face the competitive domain.