In mean temperature varies from 14 to 20 Centigrade

   In the nameof Allah who is the most      Benevolent and the most Gracious                                       NAME: SHAKOORULLAH SOOMROROLL NO: 15CE77TECH: NAME: DR.

MOHSIN ALI SOOMRO DEPT: CIVIL ENGINEERING             QUEST, NAWABSHAH               Indus River basin:                   The Indus River Basin has a totalarea of 1.12 million km2 distributed between Pakistan (47%),India (39%), China (8%) and Afghanistan (6%). The Indus river basin arises fromthe Tibetian Plateau in Western China, travels northwest through the Himalayanmountains and after crossing into the Kashmir region and traversing intoPakistan from the north to the dry plains of Sindh province in the south andflows into the Arabian sea.

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The river basin covers an area of 520,000 km2in Pakistan. According to rough estimates, 300 million people use to livenear bank of river basin.Indus river basin’s climate is not uniform.

  Annual precipitation occurs between 100 mm& 500 mm to a maximum of about 2000 mm.The upper part of Indus river basin is a high mountain regionand the mountains limit the intrusion of the monsoon, and its influence weakensnorth westward. Not only precipitation occurs in winter & spring season butalso in summer months and originates from the west, and not all precipitationderives from monsoon sources, but even from frozen mountains after melting.

Climatic changes are strongly influenced by altitudes.The climate in the Indus river varies by time, and climate ofIndus plain is arid to semi-arid (rainfall and dry).The lower plain of Indus river from December to February isthe cold and mean temperature varies from 14 to 20 Centigrade degree. Thetemperature during March to June varies from 42 to 44 Centigrade degree.

While,in the upper plain average temperature varies from 23 to 49 Centigrade degreein summer & from 2 to 23 Cent: degree in winter. Annually Indus riverreceives the rainfall of about 230 mm. keeping sight on the lower plain, Larkanaand Jacobabad get an annual rainfall of about 90 mm. Multan and Lahore being onthe upper plain receives rainfall of 150 mm and 510 mm annually. Theevaporation rate is high because of hot climate and the average annual rainfallon the lower plain like Nawab-shah is 204 mm while the upper plain like Sargodhais 650 mm.                                                        MajorResources of Water available in Pakistan:           Water is one of the fundamental need of everylife. i-e, Humans, animals, birds, fishes, reptiles etc.

Allah has gifted Pakistan with ample resourcesof water, with rivers flowing from the heights of Himalayas and Karakoram tothe unique bounty of land. Pakistan is basically an agricultural country.Agriculture sector is considered as backbone of Pakistan’s economy andcontributes 25% of the GDP.

More than 50% of our labor are working in thissector. This sector is also great user of water. Similarly, for industrialdevelopment our main source of energy is hydropower which is being generated byabundance of water in big dams and reservoirs. Therefore, the significance ofwater for the survival of our economy can’t be denied.There are two types of major resources of waterin Pakistan i-e, artificial and natural.Natural resources of water include rainfall,ponds, wells, rivers, oceans, lakes, streams, glaciers etc. While, artificialresources comprising the surface water from rainfall and rivers. Rainfall         There are major two types of water resources inPakistan, the Monsoon and the Western distributaries.

From July to September,there is about 70% of the annual Monsoon rainfall in Pakistan. Monsoons startsfrom the Bay of Bengal and usually reach in Pakistan, after passing over India,in early July. It continues until September.

Pakistan lies in both type of climaticzones, arid as well as semi-arid. The Indus plain gets an average seasonalrainfall of 212mm and 53mm in “kharif” & “Rabi” seasons. The system ofrainfall changes as we move from the north to the south of our country. It isonly in the Kyberpakhtoon Khuwa and northern canals of Punjab province thatreceive some appreciable amount of rainfall during summer season as well aswinter season. There are two periods of violent storm in Pakistan: (1)April-June (2) October-November. This is the driest part of the year.     Glaciers         Pakistan also contains more glaciers.

Indusbasin’s catchment area contains some of the largest glaciers in the world. Thecatchment area of Upper Indus glacier area is about 13,680 km2 and consideredthe river runoff in summer. Pakistan has collection of glaciers. The totallength of glaciers in Karakorum range is 160 km. About 37% of the Karakorum’sarea is covered with glaciers, Himalayas has 17% and European Alps has 22%.The total area of glacier of the upper Induscatchments is about 2250 km2, which is from most of the river runoffin the summer season. The Kabul River, which is mainly snow-fed, originatesfrom the Unai Pass of the Southern Hindukush at an elevation of 3000 m abovesea level. After flowing in eastern Afghanistan, it enters Pakistan from northof Khyber Pass.

The Jhelum River originates from Kashmir at lower elevationthan that of Indus River.   Rivers andDams            Allah has blessed Pakistan with many rivershaving tributaries to the Indus. From eastern side of Pakistan there are fiverivers (Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej) which join Indus river, besidesthese there are three minor rivers which are Haro, Soan and Siran. The overallmaximum flows of six rivers like;Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Kabul are during Kharif season.              The historical background of Pakistan in case of dams is comparativelyshort. Pakistan has three dams, at the time of independence. Two dams were inBaluchistan province the khushdil khan dam, Spin Karazi dam and one in Punjabprovince named as Nomal dam located in the Mianwali district.  The construction of dams was come into actionin 1955 when Pakistan was confronting from shortage of power as well as water toirrigate the lands.

And still Pakistan is not pondering on the issues of dams,even the international environmental institutions have informed the deficiencyof water from 2025 in the entire world according to their research. Pakistancan only store the water for just 30 days.Surface Water              The surface water resource in the Indus systemis based on the river inflow measured at the rim stations. A rim station isdefined as “the control structures(barrages, reservoirs etc.

) on river just when the river system enters into thePakistan territory or upstream of the canal irrigated Indus plain of Sindh andPunjab province” The following are the rim stations of thevarious rivers in Pakistan.Indus River  ……………………   Kalabagh BarrageChenab River …………………    Marala BarrageJhelum River …………………    Marala ReservoirSutlej River ………………….    Sulemanki BarrageRavi River ……………………     Ballkoi Barrage                    The Indus river and itssecondary streams (or tributaries) has different flow in different times of theyear.

From its total usage, most of the water is utilized for irrigation, somewater flows towards the sea and some quantity of water is consumed by thesystem loses include; seepage, evaporation and spill during floods.                  The barrages and reservoirs arebeing used to divert the water of Indus Basin Rivers towards the main canals.These canals distribute their water through a network of branch canals for theirrigation purpose.                    The Indus River System isone of the best Irrigation System in the world consisting of 16 barrages, 3 reservoirs,2 head-works, 2 siphons across major rivers, 44 canal systems, (Punjab=23,Sindh=14, Kpk=5 and Baluchistan=2) 12 inter-linked canals and more than 107,000water courses. In Pakistan, canals having length of about 56,073 km, length ofwater course is 1.

6 Million km, groundwater abstractions are 41.4 MAF, averagecanal water diversions are 104.7 MAF, number of tube wells are more than550,000, average evaporation of the sea is 39.4 MAF and total irrigated area is36 million acres.  Groundwater               Before going to start the introduction ofirrigation because of groundwater supply, First the groundwater table of Indusbasin is about 40 ft in Sindh and 100 ft in the district Bahawalpur of Punjabprovince.

Our irrigation system through groundwater is not so good due to poormanagement, shortage of drainage facilities and the additional discharge. Mostof the land of Pakistan is facing waterlogging and soil salinity due to therising of water table which results in reduction of productivity.           The water which is used for irrigation purpose is pumped through tubewells in the fields, if the groundwater is saline. Water out of clean isutilized for irrigation purposes.

About 30 years ago, Upper Indus supplies thegood quality of groundwater. The total potential of groundwater in Pakistan is55 MAF.             Each sourcesupplying quantity                The river system of Pakistan starts from thesnow-clad Himalayan & the Karakoram ranges. The entire system comprisesmainly of 5 rivers that pass through the Punjab province, which are; Indus,Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej.Above all rivers are presented concisely;Jhelum River               River Jhelum originates from southern part ofthe Kashmir valley and flows through Srinagar before entering Pakistan which isabout 54 km east of Anant nag and is nearly 774 kilometers long with acatchment area of 39,200 km2.

It has 10 major tributaries like; kunhar,Poonch, Kanshi and some others in which Neelam is the largest tributary of 260km long with a catchment area of 3,968 km2 and it is nearMuzaffarabad. Many dams and barrages are constructed on Jhelum river. One beingthe more important dam constructed on it is Mangla dam which is world’s largestearth-fill dam and was constructed in 1967. It has storage capacity up to 5.

9MAF. Chenab River         The two rivers names Chandra and Bhaga riversin the upper Himalayas (this part of Himalayas is snow-covered) join to formthe Chenab River, the joining place called as Tandi. The Chenab river is 1,232km long and its catchment area is 41,760 km2. Chenab river flowingthrough Jammu & Kashmir enters in Pakistan at the place Head Marala withvery sharp changes in slope. It has 12 major tributaries. Palku Nullah is itslargest tributary of about 120 km long with its catchment area of 1,269 km2.The Chenab river is then joined by the Jhelum river at the place Trimmu, hereis a flood control mechanism near Jhang and ongoing further it merges intoSutlej river near Uch sharif in Pakistan.

Ravi River            River Ravi also starts from low lying Himalayas range like many otherrivers. It flows through south-west region of Indian Punjab, moves along theIndo-Pak border and merges with Chenab river. It is 880 km long with itscatchment area of 24,960 km2. It has 5 major tributaries but itsupper catchment lies in India and its largest tributary is 256 km long havingcatchment area of about 730 km2. River Sutlej                  The river Sutlej starts from China and in themountain range. It is 1536 km long having a catchment area of about 75,369 km2.

This river is 70% in India while rest is in Pakistan which flows near Ferozepurand joins to river Chenab. It has 8 major tributaries but its largest tributaryis the Beas river.      Indus River            The Indus river is 12th largest river in the world. Thisriver originates from lake Manasarovar to north of Himalayas range. It isconsidered as unique in the sense that contains 7 of the highest peaks of theworld. The river Indus is 3200 m long out of which some area is in India. Ithas many tributaries of about 27 are major, while Shyoke river is the largesttributary having 640 km long. The Indus river’s flow depends on the season,almost it reduces in the winter season and flooded season in the monsoons.

              Water Storage Capacity of Pakistan                  Water is the fundamental need ofeveryone. To make it store, it is indispensable for every country to store thewater. While we have lot of need of water for agriculture, industry, drinking,domestic and many other needs. So, it is necessarily being stored. But,unfortunately Pakistan has not such available sources to store the water notthe dams or else. Pakistan is facing many difficulties and challenges. Pakistan is not a poor country but instead ofthat there is nothing storage of water.

Pakistan has only storage capacity of30 days, whereas minimum requirement is of 120 days. While India has storagecapacity of 120-220 days. Maximum capacity to store the water is rewarded toEgyptians of approximately 1000 days. America has storage capability of 900days in river Colorado.  According to aresearch figure, Pakistan will have requirement of 31% in 2025. Pakistan hasstorage of water in Tarbela Dam nearly 9.69 MAF and Mangla Dam has 4.

41 MAFstorage capability. Instead of knowing all the things, Pakistan government isnot taking any kind of step for storage of water.According to 2013 figures, 146 MAF water isreceived through Indus River, mostly from snow & melting of glaciers.

Thecurrent water availability in Pakistan is 97.71 MAF having 48.29 MAF are annualloses. According to some facts and figures of WAPDA, Pakistan also getsgroundwater aquifers of about 50 MAF.            Natural Water Requirements           According to the surveyor’s report given in2013-14, the population of country would be 220 to 230 million in 2025.

Rapidrise of population, urbanization and many other conditions will arise in caseof water resources.As we know that there is no any living thingwhich can survive without water, i-e; people, animals, birds, fishes, reptilesetc. Pakistan has major sources of water like groundwater, glaciers only.According to estimates, Pakistan covers an area of about 75 MAF, while 22 MAFis used for irrigation purpose.

In order to irrigate too much bigger area ofland there is need of sufficient water.