In legacy systems, the componentsdid not work in synchrony and therefore caused troubles When modules synchronized andshared data and business logics, they became integrated So IHIS integrated(synchronize) the working of the various components(modules) of the HIS Components of an IHIS Severalcomponents in an IHIS When components are scalable,i.e. designed for freedom and integration, they are called modulesNot all IHIS have all the samemodules Some have more, others haveless Their number andtheir functionality (performance) varies fromsystem to system and from organization to organization Generally, largerorganizations would have more complex systems in use,with more modules Major groups of modulesin an IHISRemember the IHISarchitecture …Patient Records and MedicalServicesManagement of servicesManagement of hospital Configuration of the IHISSince the patients registered inthe hospital usually come through different channels, and each may haveseparate requirement, detailed patient registrations for Consultant Clinics,In-patients and Out Patients should be available Each should ideally be catered inits independent and individual business pathway Medical Record is the repositoryof clinical decision making and recording. Medical care is a missioncritical activity in hospitals and Medical Records are the recording tools toinitiate clinical flows, assignment of services, prescriptions, patientmonitoring, and clinical notingMedical Records section in an EMRmay not only do it all, but also provide clinical audit support, summaryproduction and (optionally) if needed DSS It should also display patient’svital readings in numerical and graphical formats, and allow for theirconvenient comparative analysis Each operation theater in ahospital is a unique physical entity. A good IHIS offers an opportunityto define operation heaters individually based on their individualizedcharacteristics.
Each one is charged differently and is costed variously. It should allow all of this alongwith scheduling and patient assignment, to maximize efficiency andproductivity. Not unlike operation theaters,labor rooms are also defined, however their numbers and significance varieswith the level and spectrum of care provided a the hospitals. It is one of the oldest modulethat has existed in all Hospital Information Systems This is usually a highlyautomated feature since this is the life line of resources to the organization.The billing could be virtuallyreal time and any patient’s bill should be viewable online. This gives an unusual edge to thehospital’s management in monitoring and internal audit, while giving thepatient and his/her carers a peace of mind. Where billing is not the issue,it serves to contain costsThis is usually configuration ofthe hospital’s activities It may be used to define thevarious units to be used in the system like those for weight, volume, time,currency etc.
Hospital’s formulary may also bedefined here.Each hospitals is presumablycomposed of multiple administrative units, which hierarchically are composed ofsmaller units, often wards for example Such details may also be definedhere It is primarily a part of HumanResource management However, it also acts as agatekeeper of the system’s security, since only the defined human resource ofthe hospital can access the application. Each human resource’s jobposition may be defined using multiple parameters.
Various allowances and benefitsmay be assigned to each post. Clinical specialties may also bedefined, including their remuneration and / or salaries. A detailed profile ofconsultants is also manageable including their schedule of visitsOptional componentsSeveral components arecommonly found and others have traditionally been optional, like Clinical Knowledge Management, Clinical Decision Support, Telemedicine, Third party billing, etc. So all in all, there arecomponents of IHIS that are based on the processes and activitiesof the hospital The are four basiccategories, which represent the functionality of their constituentmodulesThere are variations and notall IHISs look alike, or act alikeHowever, there is one basicprinciple is generally adhered to – improved patient care followsimproved decision making? Reduced redundancy of data ? Better patient care ¡ Fast, accurate and convenient access to patient data ¡ Improved work efficiency ¡ Reduced turn-around-time for clinical investigations ¡ Timely services ? Better patient care leading to improved goodwill of theorganization ? Better control over nursing care and medical audit? Up-to-date bed management ? Up-to-date allocation of procedures ? Monetary control and cost saving ¡ Minimized pilferages and wastages ¡ Streamlined administrative workload ¡ Improved fiscal control ? Are a clinic’s workflows different from a hospital’s? ? What could those differences be? ¡ Complexity? ¡ Breadth? ¡ Depth? ¡ Interactivity? ¡ Interdependence? ¡ Integration? ? Saudi Arabia’s commitment to ICT: late 1960s.
? Most university hospitals already make extensive use of ICT? A few originations such as KFSH&RC have highly integratedHIS? Others like Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City, providehealthcare using high fidelity technology ? Others are either using or planning to implement IHIS? Yet, some public and private hospitals lag behind manyothers in the use of technology ? Most of them depend on traditional paper-based, clinicalrecords and may continue to do so for some time to come.? List hospitals with IHIS? KFSH & RC? National Guards Hospital? University hospitals King Saud University Hospital King Khalid University Hospital King Abdulaziz University Hospital ? New Jeddah Hospital? King Fahad Medical City (Central Region)? King Abdullah Medical City (Western Region)? King Faisal Medical City? King Khalid Medical CityList of IHIS Software vendors in KSA? Cerner Millenium (University hospitals)? Medisys ¡ King Saud Medical City (KSMC-Riyadh),¡ King Abdullah Medical City-Madinah,¡ National Guard Hospital (Riyadh & Jeddah),¡ King Fahad Central Hospital-Madinah ,¡ Al Jazeera Hospital-Riyadh”)