Inan organization, certain behaviors are anticipated from an employee that aredependent from the organization’s rules and regulations. However, employeestend to do things that are beyond their responsibilities and exhibit these behaviors out of their own desire. Thisis what we call Organizational Citizenship Behavior. This behavior includes actslike helping others, adding responsibilities, taking extra hours, tacklingrelevant issues of organization which are not part of the employee’s jobdescription.
Rather, it is by personal choice wherein if the individual willnot show such behavior, he or she will not be punished (Organ, Podsakoff, andMacKenzie, 2005). The Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) was first shownin the work of Bateman and Organ in1983 and is still of great interest to manyresearchers nowadays, as, since it was introduced, studies have been publishedfor more than 650 (Dekas, Bauer, Welle, Kurkoski, & Sullivan, 2013). Thereason for this interest is that OCB is connected with considerable outcomes ofan organization and certain individual (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff &Blume, 2009).There are five key dimensions of OCBidentified by Denis w. Organ in1988. First is altruism, a selfless act by anindividual for the welfare of others even if it results to disadvantage ofone’s self.
Next is courtesy wherein employees show politeness to avoidconflict with co-workers. Civic virtue is a voluntary behaviour of employeeswho actively engaged themselves and deeply embrace the policies of anorganization. Another dimension is conscientiousness in which an employee showsawareness and is conscious about the organization’s rules and regulations aswell as on their own actions. Last is sportsmanship which describes anemployee’s behaviour of not wanting to waste time complaining aboutdifficulties at work that are unnecessary. A study conducted from 173 bankemployees in Kenya shows that employee’s performance progressively encompasses theconcept of OCB and results also indicates that the five dimensions mentionedhave a significant and positive effect on the performance of an individual inan organization.The study suggests that altruism enables employees to share their expertisewith others and employees showing courtesy are likely to engage in citizenship behavior(Chelagat, Chepkwony & Kemboi, 2015).
Also,an integrative literature review examines OCB in relation to organization’sperformance and have found out that it aids in the improvement of a team.Moreover, it contributes to employee’s performance through recognition of themanagers of the employee’s helpfulness and cooperation (Rose, 2016). A researchconducted by Babcock-Roberson and Strickland in 2010, through gatheringdifferent empirical data, links charismatic leadership, work engagement andorganizational citizenship behavior. Results indicate that charismaticleadership to employees increases work engagement and once employees are engagedin their work, incidence of their behavior, specifically OCB, occurs moreoften. In connection, using 296 hotel staff members, empirical data weregathered indicating that burnout and decrease emotional accomplishment isnegatively related to organizational citizenship behavior. Job involvement byemployees mediates burnout and OCB (Chiu & Tsai, 2006).
OCB has no known negative effect in an organization rather ithelps increase organization’s productivity and an individual’s performance.Though employees exhibiting OCB do not expect anything in return, managersshould acknowledge or give feedback to those who are doing extra-role behaviorwhich will help motivate them and improve their performance. On the other hand,some employees must not depend much on their co-workers who are engaged in OCBsince they might end up being lax on their work. Furthermore, since charismaticleadership correlates with improvement of employee’s performance throughengagement of work (Bono& Judge, 2003) and that work engagement positively affects OCB, it would bebeneficial for managers and researchers to look for more evidence that helpssupport that leadership improves employee’s performance though organizationalcitizenship behavior. This will give the organization more insight on themanagement of employee’s performance through improving leadership qualities.