Ideologies emerge as areaction to the crises. Just like other ideologies, Green ideology is born as areaction and response to environmental problems in 1970s although the origin ofthe ideology goes back to much earlier.To begin with, it wouldbe of essence to shed light on the meaning of green ideology. Green politicalthought differs from mainstream ideologies by bringing new concepts intopolitical thought such as its anti-anthropocentric stance which means that theGreens advocate the rights of non-human world.
All other ideologies regard thenature in instrumental terms i.e. the nature is something which should be usedand taken advantage of appropriately for the needs of human-beings. Howevergreen political thinkers oppose this kind of reasoning and they argue thathuman and non-human worlds are inseparable from each other and rights ofnon-humans should be taken into consideration. In this paper I would dwell uponthe possibilities of green political theory within democracy models.Democracy has become thenorm today in many countries around the globe and all ideologies including thegreens associate their cause with democracy. However, this was not always thecase. The early green thinkers such as Hardin and Heilbroner held that greenideals could merely be achieved within an authoritarian government.
At the timethe so-called limit discourse was popular arguing that basically humanpopulation increase geometrically whereas food and natural resources increasearithmetically. Therefore an imminent action was necessary and democracy waswithout doubt not a good way to accomplish this since democracy requiresprocedures and they had no time for procedures. Nevertheless, limitdiscourse has lost popularity and sustainability discourse started to emerge asa more plausible variation which argued that democracy and green politicaltheory are compatible with each other. And yet the discussion topic shiftedfrom compatibility of green political thought and democracy to which model ofdemocracy is appropriate for the green goals.
Many green thinkers are of theopinion that liberal western style representative democracy does not serve thepurpose of the Greens because of various factors. Our four-five years termelective representation systems cause a huge obstacle since politicians areinterested in short-run policies, however, green political agenda offers long-termprograms. Consequently it will be more difficult to get votes as many people donot have the possibility to care the issues with regard to environment orfuture generations but rather how they are going to pay their credit card debtsetc. This is also related to the structures of societies i.
e. the schools, massmedia etc. they all shape the thoughts and perceptions of people so that theybecome unavoidably as a part of liberal economy as Gramsci put it much earlier.Due to the difficultieswithin representative democracy most green parties from Australia to Germanyadopted the idea of grassroot democracy which requires active participation ofall citizens (even all residents at local level) in the decision-makingprocess. By doing so they aim to reduce the influence of lobbyists because eventhough every citizen has the same suffrage rights, some groups exert moreinfluence on governments which affects undoubtedly decision-making process thatwould undermine the meaning of democracy. Thanks to the recent developments intechnology it is possible for all people to take part in political decisions directly.It is worth mentioning that the greens have more chance to realise their goalswithin this model of democracy, however, it is not certain if the decisionswould be green friendly.
As another option John Drzyek came up with the discursive(green) democracy model which would be definitely more suitable for greenpolitical goals. Firstly discursive democracy should be pluralistic which meansthat it should emphasize the necessity to communicate across different channelswithout erasing the difference. Secondly discursive democracy should bereflexive in its questioning orientation to established traditions. Moreover,discursive democracy should be transnational in its capacity to extend acrossstate boundaries, ecological in terms of openness to communication withnon-human world (Dryzek, 2000). In addition to this, a different approach hasbeen suggested by Dobson which requires to elect proxy representatives torepresent the interests of future generations and the non-human world innational and transnational level.It is worth mentioning thatdiscursive democracy is the most suitable model for green political thought as it