I. LIFE CYCLEOF PAPER BAGPaperbag is a bag made out of cardboard paper.
Paper bags arecommonly used as shopping bags and packing.These aresome materials in making paper bags:i. RawMaterial ProcurementProbablyhalf of the fiber used to make paper is come from trees/wood that has beenharvested. The remainingmaterial comes from wood fiber from sawmills,recycled newspaper, some vegetable matter, and recycled cloth.
Coniferous trees, such as spruce and fir, used to be preferredfor papermaking because the cellulose fibers in the pulp of these species arelonger, therefore making for stronger paper. These trees are called”softwood” by the paper industry. Deciduous trees (leafy trees suchas poplar and elm) are called “hardwood.” ii. ManufacturingThis ishow paper industry manufactured paper bags:Making pulp· Several processes are commonly used to convertlogs to wood pulp. In the mechanical process, logs are first tumbled in drumsto remove the bark. The logs are then sent to grinders, which break the wooddown into pulp by pressing it between huge revolving slabs. The pulp isfiltered to remove foreign objects.
In the chemical process, wood chips fromde-barked logs are cooked in a chemical solution. This is done in huge vatscalled digesters. The chips are fed into the digester, and then boiled at highpressure in a solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The chipsdissolve into pulp in the solution. Next the pulp is sent throughfilters. Bleach may be added at this stage, or colorings.
The pulp issent to the paper plant.Beating· The pulp is next put through a pounding andsqueezing process called, appropriately enough, beating. Inside a large tub,the pulp is subjected to the effect of machine beaters. At this point, variousfiller materials can be added such as chalks, clays, or chemicals such astitanium oxide. These additives will influence the opacity and other qualitiesof the final product.
Sizings are also added at this point. Sizing affects theway the paper will react with various inks. Without any sizing at all, a paperwill be too absorbent for most uses except as a desk blotter. A sizing such asstarch makes the paper resistant to water-based ink (inks actually sit on topof a sheet of paper, rather than sinking in). A variety of sizings, generallyrosins and gums, is available depending on the eventual use of the paper.
Paperthat will receive a printed design, such as gift wrapping, requires aparticular formula of sizing that will make the paper accept the printingproperly. Pulp to paper· In order to finally turn the pulp into paper,the pulp is fed or pumped into giant, automated machines. One common type iscalled the Fourdrinier machine, which was invented in England in 1807.
Pulp isfed into the Fourdrinier machine on a moving belt of fine mesh screening. Thepulp is squeezed through a series of rollers, while suction devices below thebelt drain off water. If the paper is to receive a water-mark, a device calleda dandy movesacross the sheet of pulp and presses a design into it. The paper then movesonto the press section of the machine, where it is pressed between rollers ofwool felt. The paper then passes over a series of steam-heated cylinders toremove the remaining water. A large machine may have from 40 to 70 dryingcylinders.Finishing· Finally, the dried paper is wound onto largereels, where it will be further processed depending on its ultimate use.
Paperis smoothed and compacted further by passing through metal rollers calledcalendars. A particular finish, whether soft and dull or hard and shiny, can beimparted by the calendars.The paper may be further finished by passing througha vat of sizing material. It may also receive a coating, which is eitherbrushed on or rolled on. Coating adds chemicals or pigments to the paper’ssurface, supplementing the sizings and fillers from earlier in the process.Fine clay is often used as a coating. The paper may next be supercalendered,that is, run through extremely smooth calendar rollers, for a final time.
Thenthe paper is cut to the desired size. iii. DistributionDistributionof paper bag is widely distributed in the market to make use of wrappingcostumer’s product. Other sole proprietor owner make their own paper bag, thisis one of the way in recycling papers. 1000 paper bag weighs 52 kg, totransport it; it will consume more time and more trucks to distribute in themarket. iv. ConsumerUsePlasticbags have many use, these are some of the examples on how people use plasticbags:· In Pasig Mega Market, dry foods and materialspacked by paper bags such as: rice, clothes, and many more.
· Keep Bread freshThere isno notable use of plastic bags it is just use to pack something. v. Post-consumerUseThese aresome ways in using again or recycling plastic bags:· Use your paper bags as wrappingpaper for gift giving· Make craftsout of paper bags, such as puppets, hats, or decorated gift bags. II. LIFE CYCLEOF PLASCTIC BAG Plasticbag used as shopping bags and made of different kinds of plastic.Manypeople will say that plastic bags are simply made of plastics but these aresome of the raw materials use by many manufacturer industries to produceplastic bags:i.
RawMaterial ProcurementAccordingto Lacoma (2017), Plastic bags are made from a ubiquitous polymer substanceknown as polyethylene. Polythene is produced from crude oil and natural gas,two non-renewable resources found underground, through a process known as thetubular film process. This begins as ethylene, commonly extracted from naturalgases, then treated to become the polymer, forming long chains of carbon andhydrogen atoms. ii. ManufacturingPoly(2014) listed the process on how plastics bags been manufactured. The FirstStepA processcalled extrusion is the first step in making a plastic bag. An extruder is usedto heat the polyethylene plastic to a temperature of about 500 degrees F.
Thistemperature will melt the pellets, at which time the molten plastic is pushedinto the machine and a die that determines the thickness that the bag willhave. After this happens, the plastic film is pushed into a bubbleby the outside air and through a cooling process. Next, the film is cut intothe appropriate size and then placed onto a spindle.The SecondStepOnce theplastic bag is placed onto the spindle, it is sent to what is known as aconversion department.
This team unwrap the film roll and cuts it with a heatedknife that also seals each of the sides of the bags together. Once this iscompleted, the conversion also adds all of the special characters of the bag.Next, handles are cut out using a heat process, and logos, designs and text isadded to the bag. iii. DistributionPlastic isstrictly distributed in the market because many people believe that it cancause damage in our environment, especially here in Pasig where we called”Green City”. 1000 plastic bag weighs 6 kg, transportation of it is easy and itwill distribute easier in the market without too much time consuming. iv.
ConsumerusePlasticbags have many use, these are some of the examples on how people use plasticbags:· In Pasig Mega Market, fish vendors use plasticbags, also vegetable vendors use plastic bags or simply wet foods or wetmaterials. · Carrying groceries· Home garbage can· Protecting items from dust v. Post-consumeruseWe allknow that plastic doesn’t decompose it just gets smaller, these are some waysin using again or recycling plastic bags:· Using a little bit of glue to turn plasticbags into beads· Filling of plastic bags in your patio insteadof buying pillow· Make it a kite out of plastic bag· Fashion a bracelet out of plastic bag· Using it again in packing grocery itemIII. Conclusion Accordingto a comparative study conducted by Biona, et al (2015), they revealed thatplastic bag has lesser environmental compare to paper bag. The basis of theconclusion is on the effects of the two in global warming, acidification, humantoxicity, and photomechanical ozone creation. Base onScience, plastic bags are better for the environment than paper bags. It isbecause compare to paper bags, the manufacture of plastic bags is lessresource-intensive and also it has lower global warming potential.
It addedthat there is a small amount of energy and raw materials to make plastic bagsthan paper bags. After allof the data gathered and analyzing the life cycle of two bags these are theconclusion made:· 1st is in raw materials, plasticbags have small amount of raw materials than paper bags, so it is to make paperbags and manufacture can make higher amount of plastic bags than paper bags.· 2nd is in manufacturing, plastic bags is easy to do and it will not consumemore time while paper bags undergo in many process and can consume more time.So it is easy to manufacture plastic bags than paper bags. Plastic bags arestronger than paper bags.
· 3rd is in distribution, if weconsider the number of amount of each bags and the total weight of it, plasticbags can distribute in market than paper bag because paper bag consume moretime and more trucks in distribution.· 4th is in consumer use, plasticbags have many uses than paper bags. There are no notable uses of paper bagsrather than using it in packing grocery items.· 5th is in Post-consumer use,plastic bags are easy to recycle than paper bags; paper bag is easy to becomewaste because it is weaker than plastic bags.So,plastic bags are better than paper bags base on raw material, manufacturing,distribution, uses and post-consumer use. IV.
REFERENCESBiona et al (2015). A comparative life cycle analysis of plasticand paper packaging bags in the Philippines. 8th IEEE International Conference Humanoid, Nanotechnology, InformationTechnology Communication and Control, Environment and Management (HNICEM).
CebuCity. Retrieved from:file:///C:/Users/Khenjoy-PC11/Downloads/Documents/Group%201_Plasticspaper%202.pdfLacoma T.
(2017). Materials used for making plastic bags.Retrieved from: https://sciencing.com/materials-used-making-plastic-bags-5267902.
htmlHowplastics are made? Retrieved from: http://rutanpoly.com/plastic-bags-made/ Howproducts are made. Retrieved from: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Paper.
htmlAll aboutbags. Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutbags.ca/papervplasticstudies.html