I. measure that is easy for everyone to apply,









I. Introduction

In the recent year, obesity has become a warning problem that
the world is extremely caring about. The rate of people suffering from this
” modern disease ” has increased more than ever.  According to a report published earlier this year
from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, based at the University of Washington in Seattle, about 603
milion adults and about 107 milion children over the world are obese. That represents around five per cent of all children and 12
per cent of all adults. Moreover, obesity is one of the most common health
issue the modern people are facing with. On the other hand, solving this
problem doesn’t seem to be easy for all of us. This paper will show some pros,
cons of obesity and some suggestion to prevent it.

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II. BodyII.1. Facts and

What do we know about obesity? Obesity or
overweight is a complex disorder ( disease ) which related to the amount of fat
in the body that may affect directly to our health. There are some ways to know whether you are obese or not, but
the most 2 common ways are BMI ( Body Mass Index ) or your waist circumference.

II.1.1. Body Mass Index

BMI is caculated by the division of
weight in kg and height in m2.While BMI is a simple measure that is easy for
everyone to apply, it should be considered a rough guide for predicting  risk in individual.

For adult, WHO defines overweight
and obesity as follows: Overweight, or pre-obesity, is defined as  BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2. Obesity is defined
as a BMI of over 30kg/m2

For children at the age of 5, overweight
is when your BMI greater than 2 standard deviations above WHO Child Growth
Standards median. Obesity is when your BMI greater than 3 standard deviations
above the WHO Child Growth Standards median

For children aged between 5 – 19
years: Overweight is BMI-for-age greater than 1 standard deviations above the
WHO Growth Reference median. Obesity is greater than 2 deviations above the WHO
Growth Reference median

        II.1.2. Some facts about obesity

Since 1975, the obesity rate has
risen nearly triple. In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and older,
were overweight. Of these over 650 million were obese. 39% of adults aged 18 years and over were overweight in
2016, and 13% were obese.
Most of the world’s population live
in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than underweight. 41 million children under the age of 5 were overweight or
obese in 2016.
Over 340 million children and
adolescents aged 5-19 were overweight or obese in 2016.


 In South-East Asia, Africa, and East
Mediterranean locations, obesity among women is almost double the prevalence of
obesity in men. The body fat distribution between women and men could be behind
these numbers, but studies suggest economic and social factors are also playing
a role. In war-torn countries such as Syria,
women are invariably restricted to their homes, giving them little scope for
sporting activities or recreation.


II.2. Causes and effectsII.2.1. Causes of obesity

The reason are multi-faceted. On the surface, the causes of obesity are quite
easy: The more calories you consume in the day without any exercise, the easier
you will gain weight. The main causes are because of the inactivity and the
eating habits and their lifestyle.  But
like many things, the simple explanation is often incomplete. The factors that may
be the risk  lead you to overweight and
obesity can also be a combination of everything: Genetics, socioeconomic
factors, metabolic factors.

II.2.1.1. Main causes

are 2 main causes that directly bring you to the disease.

number one cause is the laziness of a person. If you don’t like sport, or are
not very active, you don’t burn as many calories as needed a day. With this
lifestyle, you can easily take in a lot more calories everyday by eating than
the amount of calories you burn by exercising and in some normal daily

diet and eating habits may also be a reason why you’re facing with obesity.
Cheap, low quality food has now been available everywhere. Fast food, industrialized
food or canned food now can easily be found in every street and every supermarket.
For many families, people prefer eating out in a restaurant or a fast food
store to cooking and having dinner at home. We are now highly rely on some
quick cook food items with ” high nutritious ” promises that printed
on the outside. In the recent year, people have a tendency to choose food by
their eyes, taste, not because of the health reason. Taking advantages of that,
every fast food stores have launched many kinds of eyes-appealing catching food
which contains high sugar, high sugar and high salt rate. The more often you
eat them, the higher chance you will suffer obesity.

  II.2.1.2. Some risk factors

there are also some risk factors that contribute to this.

It’s Genetics. According to Wikipedia, Genetics is the study
of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is
generally considered a field of biology, but intersects
frequently with many other life sciences and is
strongly linked with the study of information systems. It is believed that when saying about the causes of
obesity, we must include the role of genetics as well as the environment around

    ” Obesity
risk is two to eight times higher for a person with a family history as opposed
to a person with no family history of obesity, and an even higher risk is
observed in cases of severe obesity ”  (http://www.obesity.ulaval.ca/obesity/generalities/genetic.php )

This means, when being born in a family with
parents who are obesity or overweight, the chance of being overweight will
increase compared with person was born in a healthy family. Moreover, heredity
will also strongly affect on your weight and where you carry it.

Secondly, they’re medical problems and certain
medication. Some medical cause, such as Prader-Will syndrome, Cushing’s
syndrome and other conditions can be the reason of obesity.Arthritis, a medical
problem, which lead to decreased activity, may result in weight gain.