I. INTRODUCTION Smart Steering Wheel is an integrated system designed to ease and automate the process of tracking important parameters of the car like engine oil health, tyre pressure, coolant health etc. with assisting the driver for better and safe driving, helping in preventing accidents.This will be done with the help of features like smart steering, parameter tracking, drowsiness detection, GPS tracking, alcohol detection, etc. Smart steering is cover made to be wrapped around the steering wheel which will correct the driver hand position while driving, which can be further modified to provide features like panic assist. Drowsiness detector is a camera attachaed on the steering wheel that continously monitor the state of the driver and also notify the driver when he/she is not fit to drive. Further advancements can be made to this project with the help of better access to technology, and more hands on time with an actual car, making the device more and more efficient and helpful.Nearly 1.
2 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,286 deaths a day. An additional20-60 million are injured or disabled. More than half of all road traffic deaths occur among young adults ages 15-45. Road traffic crashes rank as the9th leading cause of death and account for 2.1% of all deaths globally. Road crashes are the leading cause of death among young people ages 15-30, and the second leading cause of death worldwide among young people ages 5-14.
Each year nearly400,000 people under 30 die on the world’s roads, on average over 1,000 a day. Over 90% of all road fatalities occur in low and middle-income countries, which have less than half of the world’svehicles. Road crashes cost USD $519 billion globally, costing individual countries from 1-2% of their annual GDP. Road crashes cost low and middle-income countries USD $65 billion annually, exceeding the total amount received in developmental assistance. Unless action is taken, road traffic injuries are predicted to become the fifth leading cause of death in a decade. The leading causes of road accidents are: 1. Distracted Driving2.
Speeding3. Drunk Driving4. Reckless Driving5. Night Driving6. Drowsy Driving7.
Tire BlowoutsIII. PROJECT WORKSoftware Requirements: 1. Opencv + Haarcascade: OpenCV-Python is a Python wrapper for the original OpenCV C++ implementation.OpenCV-Python makes use of Numpy, which is a highly optimized libraryfor numerical operations with a MATLAB-style syntax.
All the OpenCV array structures are converted to and from Numpy arrays. Hardware Requirements: 1. Camera: A camera is an optical instrumentfor recording or capturing images,which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both. Theimages may be individual still photographs orsequences of images constituting videos or movies. The camera is a remotesensing device as it sensessubjects without any contact .
The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means “dark chamber” andis the Latin name of the original device forprojecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modernphotographic camera evolved from the camera obscura. The functioning of thecamera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. A camera may work with the light of the visible spectrum orwith other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A still camera isan optical device which creates a single image of an object or sceneand records it on an electronic sensor or photographic film.
Allcameras use the same basic design: light enters an enclosed box through a converginglens/convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitivemedium(mainly a transition metal-halide). A shutter mechanismcontrols the length of time that light can enter the camera.Mostphotographic cameras have functions that allow a person to view the scene to berecorded, allow for a desired part of the scene to be in focus, and tocontrol the exposure so that it is not too bright or too dim. Adisplay, often a liquid crystal display(LCD), permits the user to viewscene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed, exposure, and shutterspeed.
A movie camera ora video camera operates similarly to a still camera, except itrecords a series of static images in rapid succession, commonly at a rate of24 frames per second. When the images are combined and displayed in order,the illusion of motion is achieved 2. Arduino Uno: Arduino is an opensource computer hardware and software company, project, and user community thatdesigns and manufactures single-board. microcontrollers and microcontroller kitsfor building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and controlobjects in the physical world. The project’s products are distributed as open-sourcehardware and software, which are licensed under the GNU LesserGeneral Public License or the GNU General Public License , permittingthe manufacture of Arduino boards and software distribution by anyone. Arduinoboards are available commercially in preassembled form, or as do-it-yourself kits.
Arduino board designs use avariety of microprocessors and controllers. The boards are equipped with setsof digital and analog input/output pins that may be interfaced tovarious expansion boards and other circuits. The boards feature serialcommunications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus on some models,which are also used for loading programs from personal computers. Themicrocontrollers are typically programmed using a dialect of features from theprogramming languages C and C++. In addition to usingtraditional compiler toolchains, the Arduino project provides an integrateddevelopment environment based on the Processing language project.The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Select “Arduino/GenuinoUno from the Tools > Board menu (according to the microcontroller on yourboard).The ATmega328 on the Arduino Uno comes preprogrammed with a bootloader thatallows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardwareprogrammer.
It communicates using the original STK500 protocol.TheArduino Uno board can be powered via the USB connection or with an externalpower supply. The power source is selected automatically.External(non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery.The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into theboard’s power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the GND and Vin pinheaders of the POWER connector.
Theboard can operate on an external supply from 6 to 20 volts. If supplied withless than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the boardmay become unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheatand damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0.5 KB occupied by the bootloader). Italso has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM Arduino/Genuino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with acomputer, another Arduino/Genuino board, or other microcontrollers.
The ATmega328provides UART TTL serial communication,which is available on digital pins 0 and1 . An ATmega16U2 on the board channels this serial communication over USB andappears as a virtual com port to software on the computer. The 16U2 firmwareuses the standard USB COM drivers, and no external driver is needed.However, on Windows, a.inf file is required.
The Arduino Software (includes a serialmonitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the board. TheRX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via theUSB-to-serial chip and USB connection to the computer 3. MEMS PressureSensor: In less than 20 years, MEMS(micro electro-mechanical systems) technology has gone from an interestingacademic exercise to an integral part of many common products. But as with mostnew technologies, the practical implementation of MEMS technology has taken awhile to happen.
The design challenges involved in designing a successful MEMSproduct (the ADXL2O2E) are described in this article by Harvey Weinberg fromAnalog Devices.In early MEMS systems a multi-chip approach with the sensing element(MEMS structure) on one chip, and the signal conditioning electronics onanother chip was used.IV. WORKINGfig 1.WorkingTriangleHere we are using a camera which will be used to detect the state ofthe driver.
It’s been done by image processing which is given from the camera mountedon the steering wheel. When the camera detects dizzy state of state of the driver then it sounds an alarm to bring driver to its normalstate. A pressure sensor is been used to hand position of the driver. V.Methodology Our system works to help the driver to attain great concentration whiledriving. For the same purpose we have implanted a drowsiness detection system,which detects the dizziness of the driver witrh the help of the image processingthrough the camera which is been placed on the steering wheel. This systemcontinously monitors driver’s state and alerts him when he/she is feeling dizzywhile driving.
This system consists of the camera, a raspberry pi which processesthe video and detects when eyes of the driver are closed. When the eyes of thedriver are closed for more then 3 seconds then the system raises an alarm.Another system which consists of pressure sensor are placed on thesteering wheel to detect the position of hands of driver. When hands of thedriver are not on the steering wheel for more then five second then a buzzer willmake noise. VI.
Block DiagramFig 1. Block diagram of dizzinessdetectorFig 2.Block Diagram ofpressure sensor VI. SCOPE OF PROJECT There can be more features added to the current system to enhance itand cover a wider spectrum in terms of safety. Such features include: 1. GPS Tracker:This feature enables the owner of the car to track his car at every moment.This will help in tracking the car in the parking lot, warn and control the driverin regards with the speed of the car. It will also help new drivers, especiallytheir parents, to track them and get record of their speeds and driving performance.
2. Alcohol Detector:An alcohol detector can be placed on the steering wheel or somewherenear the driver, so that he can make sure he is not under influence while driving,and also, the car can be programmed in such a way that the car won’t start if alcohol is detected. Thiswill help reduce one of the major causes of car crashes. 3. Panic Assist:While driving, if the car skids, due to oil spill, rain, etc. the drivergoes in a state of panic.This may lead him to move steering in unexpected way and in rapid motion.
Panic Assist will detect this movement and harden the movement of the steering resultingin smooth movement of the car and balancing and stabilizing of the car. VII. CONCLUSION Smart Steering Wheel can help revolutionizes the current automobile andinsurance industry by providing details via an automatedprocess. The parameters which were ignored or not monitored on a more frequent basiswill be monitored on a regular basis. Also, the safety and caution features will decrease the no.
of accidents by at least 30%. This will decrease the annual death rates dueto car crashes from 3287 to 2300 a day, which in turn will help save 3,60,255lives a year which is more than the population of the entire Maldives.Also if the device is put under an automated manufacturing line for massproduction, it is estimated to cost less than Rs.15000 retail. VIII.
EXPECTED RESULT The objective to help driver concentrate and drive safely by minimizinghis distractions and assisting him in various areas is achieved. Dizzinesstracker will check conciousness of the driver, judging whether he is fit todrive or not. And the hand posture corrector will help driver adjust his handposture making his driving more safe.