Humanism philosophy has developed many theoriesabout cultures worldwide over thousands of years. As we will look at different beliefsof existentialism in humanism, including Kant’s Theory, Sartre Theory,Christian Ethics, Protestant Ethics, and Jewish Ethics, we will learn the likesand differences. Humanism is known as how phycologist observes a person andstudies the way humans behave, not only through the eyes of the observer, butthrough the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Whileboth Sartre and Kant appreciate the unity in equal application of moralityamong humans, Kant is more of a rule whereas Sartre is more of a guideline. Kant’sway is an imperative way for example; if you break it, you have done evil. Sartre’sleaves the judgment for you to determine whether it is bad or good. Kant theorystates that you can never lie, and doesn’t explain when lies might be acceptableunder certain circumstance. On the contrast Sartre allows you to do either, aslong as you recognize that it is creating a ripple effect and will now be somethingpeople will do without thinking whether it is bad or good or the consequence.
Anotherdistinguishing factor, Kant’s account of moral rules is applied to everyone asthey are humans and should have the same outcome every time, In his view, wehave a type of practical rationality, but the questions of what we will makeour choices based are on largely left up to our belief that if it is right orwrong. Buddhismis unlike the Sartre theory; they believe that you are reborn into a newexistence caused by karma. This cycle will only come to an end through personalstate where there is no desires, suffering or hatred.
Once Nirvana has been reached there is noneed for rebirth and deaths, by doing this all the karmic debts have beensettled. Like Sartre, Buddhism do notbelieve in a God believe that everyone was in charge of themselves, howeverthey believe that each human is important, that all have the potential todevelop into a Buddha – a perfected human being. Buddhism lives by a set ofpercepts to live by which basically states not to cause harm or suffering toanything around you. Contraryto Sartre, who is an atheist, Christians believe in the humanity of JesusChrist, the son of God. They assumed that the ability to reason and improveyourself through the workings of Jesus by free will and making our own choice.Like Christians, Sartre believes we have the freedom to make our own choice butthe choices we make will create a ripple, a choice that other humans willfollow. However, Christians may have the freewill but under the teachings ofGod. Jesus will lead them to their choice of right and wrong.
Christiansbelieve that, in order to change society around them, they would need to first changehumans. However, Sartre believes that once you are born, you are thrown intothe world of suffering and are now responsible for everything you do and thechoices you make. He believes that you are alone on this world to determineright from wrong and whichever you choose a consequence will follow. Sartrefeels that you are not asked to be brought into this world, which causessuffering not knowing what to expect and pain for not knowing what you areliving for. Believe that God puts suffering in their life to show at the endthe eternal joy and glory.
AlbertCamus, like Sartre, was believed to be an atheist. Camus did not believe in Godor the afterlife. He believes that death and suffering had played an importantrole in rational meaning.
Because he did not believe in God or an afterlife, Camusfelt that once we are born we are living just to die at the end. Camus didnot believe we had a reason for living but just to live the life the best wecould. Our choices in life will determine what kind of person we were while weare on Earth. Jewish, like Christianity, believed that onlyGod will judge everyone by what they have done in their life. Judaism allowspeople to see one situation on many different ways. Judaism, unlikeChristianity, which rejected the continued lawfulness of the ritual laws,Judaism believes in the eternally binding validity of the covenant of law containedin the Torah. The rabbis will never distinguish between moral or ethical andthe difference between ritual and sacral commandments. Rabbinical Judaism thus takes a holistic viewof the halakhic system, according to which no greater importance is place onany one mitzvah, or commandment, over the other.
Contrary to Sartre, Kantbelieve that Jewish suffer in order to redeem the obedient of humanity. InJudaism there is not one specific source of code and ethical thought ofbehavior, outside if Halakha. However, like other theories, and religion certainobvious ethical principles are the same understanding of the Torah’sprohibitions that are forced. These include sanctions against killing,stealing, adultery, cruelty to animals, and interfering with nature’s course.After learning more about each religion and their beliefs I havecome up with my own opinion about each one. To me Existentialism Philosophers shouldonly focus on what is inside a person, such as thoughts, beliefs,responsibilities, and our emotions.
Existentialists should understand thatevery person is in control our their lives’ and what paths we may take tillthey reach the end. This, to an Existentialist, is true down to even very specificthings. If we are depressed or upset at any particular moment, it is because wechoose to be. They also argue that because we can choose to be or to feelanything at any particular time that we are not intuitive to any of thosethings to begin with.
Sartre took these things to something of an extreme andbroadened it to indicate that our own choices are made freely. Every human,according to Sartre, is completely free and are bound only by the results ofchoices they have already made. Philosophy explains to humans that ourexperiences that we have had and the choices we have made can influence ourpersonality as well as out outcome in the afterlife. In order to understand whywe behave the way we do in the first place, we must first look at our actionsand things that have influenced us.