HISTORY all the staff in the university library and

HISTORY OF FIBER OPTICS In 1800s a British physicists by the nameof John Tyndall discovered that light could be bent around a corner through acurved spout of running water 1. In this experiment he permitted water tospout from a tube, the light on reaching the limiting surface of air and waterwas totally reflected and seemed to be washed downwards by the descendingliquid.

What he had discovered was the idea known as Total Internal Reflection.It is this idea that is the basis of Fiber Optics.  The first practical application of this wasused in the United Kingdom during the 1930s in the medical field.

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An un-coatedplastic “channel” was used to guide light to an area of interest for inspection2. Also during the 1930s, other ideas were developed with this newly foundtechnology such as transmitting images through a fiber. The idea oftransmitting an image through bundles of glass fibers was introduced in the 50s1. This idea of light propagating through a fiber was rapidly expanding.During the 1960s, Lasers were introduced as efficient light sources and in the70s the refinement of pure low-loss glass fibers was establish 1 3.

Withthese developments, fiber optic transmission became practical and advantageousfor many applications. In 1980s small telephone companies wereallowed by the United State government to compete with the AT&T after itderegulated the service. Many other telephone companies like MCI and Sprinttook advantage of this opportunity and installed their regional fiber opticstelecommunications networks throughout the world.              TABLEOF CONTENTS                HISTORY OF FIBER OPTICS——————————————————- 1           REPORT BACKGROUND————————————————-__________________________________________________2Acknowledgements_______________________________________21.0Introduction_____________________________________________41.

1 Problemdefinition________________________________________41.2Scope__________________________________________________51.3 Project aimsand objectives_________________________________5-61.01Aim___________________________________________________51.02Objectives_________________________________________62.

0 Review ofexisting knowledge_______________________________7-92.1Research_______________________________________________72.1.1 Journals_________________________________________7            2.1.2Books___________________________________________72.2 Review ofexisting___________________________________72.

2.1Voltage___________________________________________72.2.

2Current___________________________________________8            2.2.3Resistance________________________________________8            2.2.4 Ohm’s Law________________________________________82.

3Costs_____________________________________________9             2.4Parts Cost Estimate__________________________________9     Acknowledgements Thanks for all the staff in theuniversity library and friend for helping me to support and develop my Report.    REPORTBACKGROUNDFiber-optic communication is amethod of transmitting information from oneplace to another by sending pulsesof light through an optical fiber. The light formsan electromagnetic carrier wave thatis modulated to carry information.

Firstdeveloped in the 1970s, fiber-opticcommunication systems have revolutionized thetelecommunications industry andhave played a major role in the advent of theInformation Age. Because of itsadvantages over electrical transmission, opticalfibers have largely replaced copperwire communications in core networks in thedeveloped world.          1.2OBJECTIVE The objective of this project is todesign and built a two-ways audioCommunication by using an opticalcable. Since the fiber optic is one of the newfields in Malaysia, so theexploration in the application of an optical cable in thecommunication system is veryimportant for the future. Plus there are moreexploration should be done in thisproject to analyze on how to convert audio signalto the form that can be used intransmitting using optical cable with minimum loss    1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENTNowadays, optical fibers are widelyused in communication, which permitstransmission over longer distances andat higher data rates than other forms ofcommunications.

Optical fibers areused instead of copper wires because signalstravel along them with less loss,and they are immune to electromagnetic interference.Plus, the signal security in thefiber optic cable is more guaranteed than in the coppercables. This because thetransmitted signal through the fiber does not radiate. Unlikein copper cables, a transmittedsignal cannot be drawn from a fiber withouttampering it. Thus the optical fibercommunication provides 100% signal security            LITERARUTE REVIEW BACKGROUND STUDY Cable TV shows, phone calls, orInternet files normally travel through copperwire cables in the form ofelectrical signals. In a fiber optic system, a transmitterconverts these electrical signalsinto pulses of light. It shoots them down glass fibers,until they reach the far end of theline. Here, receivers re-convert the light pulses toelectrical signals, which then areturned back into voice, video, and data files.

  Enormous Bandwidths The information carrying capacityof a transmission system is directlyproportional to the carrierfrequency of the transmitted signals. The opticalcarrier frequency is in the rangeof 1014 Hzwhile the radio frequency is about106Hz. Thus the optical fibers have enormoustransmission bandwidths andhigh data rate. Using wavelengthdivision multiplexing operation, the datarate or information carryingcapacity of optical fibers is enhanced to manyorders of magnitude.          Low transmission lossDue to the usage of ultra low lossfibers and the erbium doped silicafibers as optical amplifiers, onecan achieve almost loss less transmission.Hence for long distancecommunication fibers of 0.002 dB/km are used. Thusthe repeater spacing is more than 100km.

      Immunity to cross talk Since optical fibers are dielectricwave guides, they are free from anyelectromagnetic interference (EMI)and radio frequency interference (RFI).Since optical interference amongdifferent fibers is not possible, cross talk isnegligible even many fibers are cabledtogether.           Electrical isolationOptical fibers are made from silicawhich is an electrical insulator.Therefore they do not pick up anyelectromagnetic wave or any high currentlightening. It is also suitable inexplosive environment.

     • SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at highspeeds – up into the gigabits• BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity• DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted furtherwithout needing to be “refreshed” or strengthened.• RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagneticnoise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables.• MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less tomaintain.        Optical fiber cablesInpractical fibers, the cladding is usually coated with a toughresin buffer layer,whichmay be further surrounded by a jacket layer, usually plastic.

These layersaddstrength to the fiber but do notcontribute to its optical wave guide properties.Rigid fiber assembliessometimes put light-absorbing (“dark”) glass between thefibers, toprevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering another. Thisreducescross-talkbetween the fibers, or reducesflarein fiber bundle imagingapplications.Modern cablescome in a wide variety of sheathings and armor, designed for applicationssuch as direct burial in trenches, high voltage isolation, and dual use  references: 1-     https://www.openoptogenetics.org/images/f/fb/Fundamentals_of_Fiber_Optics.pdf2-     https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2011/05/alan-jones-confuses-laser-beams-with-fibre/3-     http://www.olson-technology.com/mr_fiber/fiber-history.htm4-     http://eprints.utem.edu.my/1918/1/Optical_Fiber_Audio_Communication_System_-_24_pages.pdf