Here 9% of the respondents gave positiveresponse and recommended to installed the solar system because it decreases crime rate in night time, 18.3 of the respondents also recommendedto installed the solar system because it helpsin increasing the conforms of life, 2.7% of the respondents also recommended to installed thesolar system because it help in increase thesecurity level, 4% of the respondents also recommended to installed the solar system because it helps in increasing the study hours of kids in nighttime, 6% of therespondents also recommended to installed the solar system because it help in increase the sleeping hours at day time, 29.
3% ofthe respondents alsorecommended to installed the solar system because it help in increase it helps in increases the education level whichleads to increase the standard of life, 5% of the respondents also recommended to installed thesolar system because it helps in increasingthe rest, 5.7% of therespondents also recommended to installed the solar system because it helps inincreasing the education level by providing light especially in night time, 20%of the respondentsalso recommended to installed the solar system because it helps in reducing crime rate in night time.4.
9.Binary Logistic Regression for Affecting the Adoption of Solar TechnologyThis study has appliedthe binary logit model to estimate the factors affecting the adoption of solartechnology and these are presented here below. Table 4.17 and 4.18 provides thebinary logistic regression result and the marginal effects are presented thatmakes the interpretation much easier.
Table 4.18 portrays thesummary of estimation of logic model 1 where dependent variable is adoption ofsolar energy while independent variables are initial cost (icost_1) which isproxy of price, load shedding (ls_2), numbers of years of education (edu_2)which is proxy of knowledge and awareness, purposes of solar energy (purp) andalternative of solar energy available (As) which is proxy of Number ofsubstitutes available.From the abovefindings, initial cost (Icost-1) is negatively insignificant. It indicates thatinitial instalment cost has no affect on adoption of solar energy. By observingthe results, LS-2 is positively significant and 10% change in dependentvariable is due to one unit change in independent variable that is 10% changein adoption of solar energy is due to one unit change in load shedding ofelectricity it means that more the load shedding, the more will be adoption ofsolar energy.
Education is positively insignificant. It indicates that numbersof years of education has no affect on adoption of solar energy. Purposes ofsolar energy (purp) is positively significant and 3% change in dependentvariable is due to one unit change in independent variable that is 3% change inadoption of solar energy is due to one unit change in purposes of solar energy it means that morethe number of appliances usage, the more will be adoption of solar energy.Alternative of solar energy available (As) is also positively significant and4% change in dependent variable is due to one unit change in independentvariable that is 4% increase in adoption of solar energy is due to one unitincrease in alternative of solar energy it depicts that more the number ofalternative of solar energy available, the more will be adoption of solarenergy because solar energy is relatively cheaper than other energy.Table 4.20 portrays thesummary of estimation of logic model 2 where dependent variable issustainability of solar system (s1) while independent variables are income ofrespondents (y2_1), maintenance cost on solar system (mcost_1), durability ofsolar system (d) and numbers of years of education (edu_2) which is proxy ofknowledge and awareness. From the above findings the overall model isstatistically significant.From the abovefindings, it is found that income (y2_1) has insignificant impact onsustainability of solar system.
Maintenance cost (mcost-1) has a positiveimpact on sustainability of solar system and is statistically significant and0.00049% change in dependent variable is due to one unit change in independentvariable that is one unit increase in maintenance cost will bring 0.00049%increase in sustainability of solar system.Durability (d) has also a positiveimpact on sustainability of solar system but is statistically significant and1.7% change in dependent variable is due to one unit change in independentvariable that is 1.7% increase in sustainability of solar system is due to oneunit increase in durability. And Education (edu_2) has found to be positivelyinsignificant. This implies that more the people are educated does not haveimpact on sustainability of solar energy.
CHAPTER FIVECONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS5. INTRODUCTIONThis chapter presents conclusions drained from the resultsand also presents recommendations made and policy recommendations. Theconclusions and recommendations made were based on addressing the aim of thestudy which is to analyze the factors affecting the adoption of SolarTechnology in village Regi, District Peshawar.5.1. CONCLUSIONSIn the light of above results, it is concluded that priceof solar system such as initial installation cost negatively influenced theadoption of solar technology.
This implies that the more the price of solarsystem, the less will the adoption of solar technology. By observing the results, Load shedding is significant andpositively influences the adoption of solar system. This implies that more theload shedding, the more will be adoption of solar energy.
In the light of above findings, it is concluded that mostof the respondents are aware of solar systems through shopkeepers, neighboursand friends and minority of the respondents are not aware of solar systems.Looking to the findings of the study, it is concluded that most of therespondents i.e.
, 54.3% of the respondents have never received any formal orinformal training on solar systems and 45.7% of the respondents had receivedany formal or informal training on solar systems in those 38% of the respondents had received through shopkeepers,4.3% of the respondents through neighbours and 3.3% of the respondents throughfriends. This means that the majorityof the respondents have never received any formal or informal training on solarsystems. This indicates that the level of knowledge and awareness ofsolar energy and how to utilize it was relatively low.
In the light of abovefindings, it is concluded that majority of the respondents i.e., 43% of therespondents had attained 11 years of schooling. This implies that most of therespondents had attained low education level and minority had received higheducation level. It is probably to conclude that the adoption of solar systemwill be significantly increases if the government give free primary educationthen education creates awareness which will tends to increase the adoption of solartechnology. This implies that the morethe level of knowledge and awareness and number of years of schoolingattained, the greatly the demand for and adoption of solar technology will beaffected.
Looking to the findings of the study, it is concluded that mostof the people in village Regi adopted the solar energy. Looking at theconsumption pattern of PV-users, we can see that majority of them are relyingon this technology for their most immediate needs i.e. lighting, running fansand charging phones. It is concluded that purposes of solar energy ispositively significant.
This means that more the number of appliances usages,the more will be adoption of solar energy. From the above findings, it is concluded that Alternativeof solar energy available (As) is also positively significant and it depictsthat more the number of alternative available, the more will be adoption ofsolar energy because solar energy is relatively cheaper than other energy.From the findings, it is concluded that income level ofrespondents has a positive impact on sustainability of solar system but isstatistically insignificant. This implies that the level of income does notinfluence the sustainability of solar system.Looking to the findings of the study, it is concluded thatMaintenance cost has a positive impact on sustainability of solar system and isstatistically significant.
This implies that the more the respondents spend onrepairing of solar system, the more will be sustainability of solar system.From the above findings, it is concluded that Durabilityhas a significantly positive relationship with sustainability of solar system. Thisimplies that the more the durability of solar system, the more will besustainability of solar system.In the light of above findings, it is concluded that numberof years of schooling which as proxy of Education level is positivelyinsignificant and linked to awareness .i.e. education creates awareness. Buthere number of years of schooling that is education level has found to be has noimpact on sustainability of solar energy.
5.2. RECOMMENDATIONSIn the light of the above findings, the researcherrecommends that1.
In Pakistan, the Government and particularly the Ministryof Energy should have to offer free training and schooling to raise the levelof knowledge and awareness on theusage of sun energy. This could be accomplished via seminars and workshops where people areinvited for free guidance, training and demonstration on the utilization and advantages of solar power.2.
The Government of Pakistan ought to impose zero rating tax on solar gadget in order toaffect decrease pricing consequently making it more low-cost for buyand installation of sunbased energy. This would be of help particularly for those who are settled in the villages. On other hand,it should be needed to arrange such a plan that permits the people to pay agreeable little sum of cash per month in a bid toraise the usage of solar electricity.3.
The village used different resources of power, which had been n most cases wood based totally .TheGovernment and particularly the Ministry of Energy should have to find the solution for deforestation by given theawareness to community about solar energy. And the society ought to be encouragedto use solar power because it is less expensive andmore easily available than thealternative assets of electricity. 5.4 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONSAccess to energy plays a significant role in attainingsustainable development as strong correlation exists between human developmentindex and energy development index, (IEA, 2012). Given the huge potential forSolar energy in Pakistan, remote villages and communities can significantlybenefit from it. Nevertheless, absence of vibrant policies and institutes forpromotion of solar energy are responsible for a slower and limited transitiontoward it.
This study shows a strong social acceptance for the technology. Asper the survey, proper markets and relevant expertise are available in thelocal areas for solar technology. Trust in the technology is quite high amongstthe users. But high installation cost and absence of fiscal tool for itspromotion are major barriers impeding its growth.
In the light of the resultsof this study, following initiatives can speed up the transition to solarenergy:1. One of the principal factors responsible for slowertransition to solar or renewable energy is lack of competition. Procurement ofsolar technology is very costly compared to its fossil fuel counterpart giventhe subsidized provision of the latter. Supply of conventional energy at lowertariff is hindering investment in Renewable Energy Technology.
Initiativesshall be taken for revision of the said subsidies. Equal opportunities forinvestors in Renewable energy shall be made. Furthermore, incentives to theprivate sector in the form of tax holidays and the like can accelerateinvestment in this sector.2. Subsidized provision of solar PV panels to the poor classcan ensure electricity access to the deserving. Devolution of this task tolocal bodies can help in identification of poor and thus extension of theproject to the needy.3. Feed in Tariff (FIT) has been a very effective tool forpromotion of Renewable energy across the globe.
It offers long term contractsand cost-based compensations to Renewable Energy producers. Government alsoguarantees purchase of the electricity produced. This policy should be extendedto residential scale where home-owners can benefit from it.4. Batteries which are used as energy storage devices are aroutine maintenance cost linked with solar electrification. This costrepresents a major financial challenge for users. Allocation of energy funds tolocal bodies and establishment of local institutions which can partiallyfinance maintenance funds will help in making the Solar PV system more usefuland will relieve the poor customers from this financial burden.
5. Lack of adequate funding for renewable energy is one of themajor challenges for slow uptake of solar energy in the country. The governmentshould make the most of opportunities as offered by the ADB, particularly interms of low interest loans, for setting up environmentally clean energyinfrastructure and for extending solar energy to villages which have not yetbeen connected to the national grid.6. Last but not least, government should advertise anydesigned policies for promotion of Renewable Energy Technology, so that maximumpeople could benefit from it.
5.5.LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYThe limitations of this study were 1. Firstly, the resource and finance constraint were the biggestlimitation of the study.2.
Secondly the majority of the respondents were not easilyunderstands the questions and gives the irrelevant answers to the questionsbecause they are less educated. 3. Thirdly, there are no secondary data available and no documentsof such data might be found, thus, gathering the primary data from respondentis too difficult task.4. Fourth limitation is unlimited time were required tocollect the primary data from the respondents and then analyzed it.
5. Lastly, The Remoteness of the area was also a limitation ofit its own kind.