Gill, help of statistical procedures in which the arithmetic

Gill,
et al; (2010). In the present study we have tried to
compare the components of physical fitness components namely speed, strength,
endurance, agility and flexibility among female students in rural and urban
environments. The study was conducted in 100 female students (50 rural and 50
urban) from Punjabi University, Patiala. The data was collected using height
and weight measurements, as well as through the test such as jumping, stepping,
running, flexibility, etc. The data were analyzed and compared with the help of
statistical procedures in which the arithmetic mean, standard deviation (SD),
standard error of mean (SEM), and’t’ test were employed. This study concluded
that rural students have been superior in strength, endurance, speed, and
agility. On the other hand, urban female students were heavier and superior in
tasks such as flexibility.

Milanese, et al;
(2010). Anthropometry
and motor skills examined in children of 6-12 years. The objective of this
study was to assess motor skills and anthropometric parameters in children aged
6 to 12 years and their interrelationships. Total 221 students of the Verona
university (Italy) were attended the summer camp organized by the faculty of
motor science in 2005 to 2007. One fifty two children (103 males and 49
females) were treated with standard anthropometry (body mass index, waist
circumference, waist / hip ratio and the sum of five skin folds) and motor
skills tests (standing jump and 30 m dash). Sixty nine students were excluded
because they didn’t complete anthropometry measurements. Data were stratified
by age (6-7, 8-9, 10-12 years) and sex (M / F), and the spearman correlation
coefficient was used to assess the correlation between BMI and other
anthropometric measures in each class as correlation between anthropometric
parameters and physical fitness tests. The effect of age, sex, and individual
anthropometric measures on jump speed or length was assessed by ANOVA. BMI
correlated positively with waist circumference and subcutaneous fat, and was
negatively correlated with body density. Motor fitness was not significantly
influenced by BMI, while the sum of five skin folds was negatively associated
with speed in male children 6-7 years of age and jump length in female aged 8
and 12 years. Motor fitness significantly correlated with age and performance
was higher in males. In addition, motor fitness tests have been positively
correlated with each other, especially in females. In the 6-12 year period,
motor performance improves with age and improvement is partially related to
sex; this correlation is higher in male children, probably because of their
lower fat content. Subcutaneous fat is a better predictor of physical fitness
than BMI or the circumference of waist. The results also suggested that
explosive strength and speed are related to the age of 6 to 12 years, perhaps
because both are power events, involving horizontal movement of the center of
mass.

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Chillon, et al;
(2011). Physical fitness
has been developed in rural and urban children and adolescents in Spain.
Objectives examine the differences in physical components between rural and
urban Spanish children and adolescents. A sample of 2569 school children (1068)
and adolescents (1501) from urban and rural areas in the Aragon region (Spain).
Physical fitness was evaluated through 7 tests: 20-meter shuttle run, fast
speed racing, sit and reach test, standing long jump, hand grip, bent arm hang
and sit ups (30 sec.). The differences in physical fitness and anthropometry of
the place of residence were examined by the one-way analysis of covariance.
Rural children and adolescents have a healthier profile of their urban peers in
terms of cardio respiratory, upper and lower extremities muscle fitness and
adiposity, while their agility and flexibility are worse. The place of
residence must be taken into account in order to take effective measures to
promote physical activity and health.

Pandey & Pandey, (2011). The study was designed to find the
health related physical fitness among girls studying in different types of
government schools of urban, semi-urban and rural areas in Uttar Pradesh, the
student age was between 12 and 17 years. 150 subjects from each school were
selected. Total 450 subjects were selected randomly. To compare the different
health related physical fitness components among girls studying in different
types of government school (rural, urban and semi-urban), the variance analysis
(ANOVA) has been applied the level of significance .05. A significant
difference was found between the paired mean of semi-urban and rural (4.98),
urban and rural (3.86) and urban and semi-urban (1.12) in relation to abdominal
muscle strength. A significant difference between urban and rural pairs (7.33),
urban semi-rural (5.13) and urban and semi-urban (2.2) in relation to its
shoulder muscle strength found. A significant difference between urban and
rural pairs (1.53), rural and semi-urban (1.11) and urban and semi-urban (0.43)
in relation to the percentage of body fat found. A significant difference found
between paired means of urban and rural (2.25), semi urban and rural (1.32) and
urban and semi-urban (0.93) in relation to its coordination ability .
Significant differences between the paired means of urban and rural (285.8),
urban and semi-urban (204.00) and semi urban and rural (81.87) in relation to
their cardio respiratory endurance was found. A Significant differences between
paired means of urban and rural (4.12), urban and semi-urban (2.69), and
semi-urban and rural (4.13) were reported in relation to their flexibility.

Kumar
& Singh, (2012). The purpose of this study was to
compare the physical fitness of government and non-governmental school boys of
Chandigarh. The AAHPER Youth Physical fitness Test (Six Test: Pull-Up, bent
knee sit-ups, Shuttle Run, standing broad Jump, 50 Dash and 600 yard Run /
Walk) were conducted in 4000 students (2000 urban and 2000 rural) aged between
13 and 16 years of Chandigarh (UT). To compare the average differences between
the government test and the non-governmental school children t-test was
computed with the help of SPSS Software. The level of significance was 0.05.
Significant differences have been observed among governmental and
non-governmental school children. The finding reveals that non-governmental
students are physically superior to their peers.

Suliburska, et al; (2012). The
objective of the study on the lifestyle of young people in rural and urban
areas. It seems to be differences in the lifestyle of young people in rural and
urban areas. The objective of this study was to compare the eating habits and
physical activity of young adults based on body weight, sex and place of
residence. The study included total 300 young adults from rural and 300 from
urban environment in Wielkopolska. In the study, included 50% of the girls and
50% of the boys in each group were 18 years of age, selected using simple
random sampling (SRS). Urban area comprised 4 districts and rural area
comprised 22 villages in Wielkopolska. The author’s questionnaire was provided
to evaluate nutrition and physical activity. It was found that BMI was
significantly higher in the boys than in the girls group. Compared to normal
weight, overweight adults are meals more often, preferred meat dishes, more
often with less stress and less physical activity. It has been found that sex
(gender)  has had a significant impact on
the parameters studied. Girls are meals more frequently during the day,
favorite fruits and vegetables, but they had less physical activity than boys.
It was found that young rural adults prefer fast food and often sweets.
Compared with urban subjects, young adults living in the country consumed fewer
daily meals and were more physically active. Approximately half of the adults
studied were not satisfied with their weight and almost 40% of subjects in both
groups admitted to having made effective or ineffective attempts to lose
weight. The lifestyle of young people in rural and urban areas is slightly
different; however, dietary factors predispose weight gain were comparable in
both groups. In rural areas, the most frequent nutritional deficiencies were
the preference for fast food, frequent consumption of sweets and few meals
during the day. A positive aspect of the youth lifestyle in rural areas was a
relatively high level of physical activity and the small effect of stress on
over consumption.

Kolekar & Sawant, (2013). A cross-sectional study was
conducted  to compare the physical growth
amongst the healthy children of urban and rural area school  of the Sangli district of Maharashtra, India.
For the purpose of study 2300 school children (1390 urban and 910 rural) were
taken. Anthropometric measurements like height (cm) and weight (kg) were taken.
Urban school children’s height and weight has been statistically higher than
rural school children at the level of p<0.05. This was due differences in the nutritional and socio-economic environment in urban and rural areas. It is a comprehensive understanding of nutritional diversity, food availability, prevention and treatment of recurrent diseases, hygiene and literacy of parents in the urban areas as compared to rural areas. Kumar, (2014). The purpose of the study was to compare the physical fitness variable of 15-19 years basketball players of the urban and rural area of Rohtak district in relation to its age. To complete the objective of the study, 40 basketball players (20 rural and 20 urban) were selected from the Rohtak. They were used only standing broad jump test and 50-yard test to measure selected physical fitness variables of basketball players. The study was delimited by the AAHPER test battery. t-test was used to analysis the data and examined the significant difference between rural and urban basketball players Rohtak. Dhadwal, (2015). The purpose of the study was compared to the body mass index and the selected fitness variables analyzed in active and inactive students. A total of 50 girls, 25 active and 25 inactive students were selected from the St. Lawrence School of Samana in Patiala (Punjab) in India. Demographic Profile helps us to divide the school going girl students into active and Inactive girl students which told us about their interest in games and sports and also in other activities of daily living. They did not given any physical training before taking the body mass index and fitness test. After the selection of 50 girls who were age of 12 to 15 years to study in different classes i.e. 6th to 9th were given in the selected criteria variables. At the beginning of the demographic profile demonstration, all selected complete sets, physical fitness variables such as speed, agility, strength (grip, leg and back strength) and body mass index were selected. Which were tested on active and inactive school girls? Data were analyzed using the t-test. The results of these BMIs and selected physical fitness variables make an insignificant difference between active and inactive girls at the significance level of 0.05. Mondal & Bandyopadyay,(2015). The aim of this study was to compare the selected physical fitness components between Bangladesh and Indian girls for 7 to 9 years. The study was conducted on 211 subjects, 107 Indian girls from Purulia and Midnapur district in West Bengal and 104 girls from Bagerhat district in Bangladesh for the comparison of physical fitness variables and all of the subjects were live at village. The subjects were born in daily labour and peasant family. Indian girls went to school and play in the field in afternoon daily but Bangladeshi girls were less involved in games they help their parents for cultivation in fields.  The variables selected for the study were strength endurance of the upper body (flex arm hang in sec), agility (shuttle run 4x10 m in sec) and cardiovascular endurance (reduced Cooper test in meter). The t-test was used to determine the significant difference between the different disciplines. It was concluded that there was a significant difference between Indian girls and Bangladesh in upper body strength endurance. But significant differences were not found in the variables of agility and cardiovascular endurance. Indian girls have a better agility and cardiovascular endurance than Bangladesh girls, but Bangladesh girls have better upper body strength endurance than Indian girls. Singh, (2015).The study examined the flexibility of low back and posterior thighs from the class of bachelor education girls from science and arts. The study was conducted in a sample of 100 students (50 science and 50 Arts) were randomly selected from collages of education of Ludhiana and nearby areas.  To measure the flexibility of subjects by using sit and reach test from AAHPERD health related fitness test battery. The results of the study have shown that the girls of Arts stream have better flexibility than the girls of science. Song, (2015). The purpose of the study is to analyze the various factors of physical activity, dietary habits and physical strength found in college students with normal and high body fat. This is a comparative study. In total, 78 people from 20 to 29 years old participated in this study: 48 students in normal body fat and 30 students in high body fat groups. Participants were analyzed based on general and health related characteristics, physical activities and dietary habits through a questionnaire. They measured body fat, BMI, muscle strength, flexibility and lung capacity. Differences in terms of their general and health related characteristics, physical activity, dietary habits and physical strength between the two groups examined with X2-test and independent t-test with the help of SPSS 21.0.  No significant differences were found in gender, the perceived health and interest in health between the two groups. There was a significant difference in knowledge of body shape, intensity, type and frequency of exercise, muscle strength, flexibility and lung capacity between two groups and no significant differences in dietary habits. This study has shown that physical activity and strength have a directly related with body fat than dietary habits. Management and constant interest of body fat are necessary, particularly with regard to both physical active and physical strength. Karak & Mandal, (2016). A comparison study of physical fitness between physical education students and students in general (age group 17-20 years). Total 60 subjects were studied for S.B.S.S Mahavidyalaya, Goaltore, Paschim Medinipur and Western Bengal. AAHPER YOUTH FITNESS TEST BATTERY (1976) was used to measure the physical fitness. To compare physical fitness between students of physical education and students in general (aged 17-20 years) independent t-test was conducted at 0.05 significant levels. The results of this study reveal that there were significant differences in pull ups, sit ups, standing jump, 50 yards dash, shuttle run and 600 yards run/walk for know the strength of the arm and shoulder, abdominal, leg strength, agility, speed and cardiovascular endurance respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was noted that physical education students are stronger arm and shoulder, abdominal, leg strengths, agility, speed ??and cardiovascular endurance of general students for participation in games and sports for various types of physical activity. Yadav & Sharma, (2016). A comparative study of physical Fitness between Aarohi and students of government school boys. Before the industrial revolution, physical fitness was the ability to carry out the day's activities without undue fatigue. Therefore, observing the felt requirement, consider trying to study the physical fitness between five Aarohi and fifteen government schools in the Mewat district. In order to examine the physical fitness of 50 students of Aarohi boys and 50 boys from government school from the Mewat district were randomly selected to serve as subjects. The 't' test is used to compare and analyze the data. According to statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in physical fitness between Aarohi and the government schools in the Mewat district. This clearly indicates that the average physical condition of Aarohi boy students was far superior to the average physical attitudes of Haryana's Mewat district government school students.