From on the mastery of the technology of firearms.

the late thirteenth century, three new empires emerged, the Ottoman, Safavid,
and Mongol. The Osman Turks on the Anatolian Peninsula in Turkey started the
Ottoman Empire.  The Safavid Dynasty
started with Shah Ismail. And Babur was the founder of the Mongol Empire and
united the Hindu and Muslim kingdoms of India. The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mongol
Empire all had great impact in the history of Middle East. However, their
successes were on the base of their unified empire. As one of the indispensable
progress led an empire to success, there are some factors that help the
emperors to unify the empire. From 1300 to 1700 CE many countries dominated
parts of Middle East because of strong military strength, flourished economy,
and strong government.

To begin with, high
militaristic was one of the elements that help unify an empire.  The Ottoman Empire could be an example to
show that empire with strong military forces could unified themselves and
quickly spread its power. The Ottoman Empire was established by the Osman I in
1299 CE. The rise of the Ottoman Empire was with the fall of the Byzantine
Empire. 1In the Ottoman Empire, the Sultan was the supreme
controller of the Ottoman armies, which was very well organized and funded.
Military concepts and procedures penetrated the operations of the court, ministries,
and bureaucracy. Warfare was the one of the business of the state, and that
business was very cost-effective for the Turks. Every year the sultan planned
and usually led a meticulous designed campaign intended to attain the aim—the
conquest of a new territory and spread the empire. A new force of army was
assembled for every campaign season. They recruited soldiers from the conquered
people and at the height of its military power the Ottoman forces totaled over
20,000 men. The Ottoman Empire was like most Muslim empires of the time; it was
a “gunpowder empire” 2since its success largely based on the
mastery of the technology of firearms. The firearm of the Ottoman Empire was
called Janissaries; they were elite gunpowder troops. They were recruited from
the local Christian population and converted them to Islam and were trained as
foot soldiers to serve the Sultan.3 Another evidence could be the Mongol
Dynasty. Mongol conquests of the 13th and 14th centuries
destroyed remaining Muslims unity in Southern Asia. Babur, a descendant of
Tamerlane invaded India in 1526 for seeking wealth. He got stuck and decided to
stay in India. By 1528, the Mongols controlled most of the Indus and Ganges region.
Babur’s armies were usually smaller than his army but had weapons, artillery,
and used them with great effect.  The
Safavid Empire also trained strong armies. The military force of the Safavid
Empire was led by the ruler, which they called the Shah. The Shah of the Safavid
empire also trained firearms as other empires at that time in the middle east
did.  In a nut shell, all three of these
Empires possessed great militaries that conquered most of their empires land.
Besides, the Mongol, Ottoman, and Safavid Empires were known as the “military
patronage state” due to their success with firearms during their conquests.4

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            In addition to military strength, to
unify an empire must have a good government and strong leaders. Another reason
for the success of the Ottomans is tied to religion. The citizens of the
Ottoman Empire were devout Muslims and they believed they were on a mission to
expand Islam. Besides, the government of the Ottoman Empire was on the base of
its religion so the religious leaders of the empire were also the political
leaders. This made it easy for the citizens to obey their ruler. And the
religion related government prevented the political disturbance that occurred
in other empires. Also, the Ottoman released policies to tolerant the
non-Muslims. The non- Muslims paid a tax, but they were allowed to practice
their religion or convert to Islam. Furthermore, took the Mongol Dynasty as an
example, one of the famous Mongol emperor, Akbar the Great, who was the
grandson of Babur. He placed most of India under Mogul control by use of
artillery and negotiation. Akbar the Great was best known for his humane
character of his rule: he adopted a policy of religious tolerance and encourage
intermarriage—even marrying a Hindu princess himself. He had many achievements
during his rule: worked to reconcile problems with Hindu majority, ended
special tax on Hindus, granted land to Hindu and Muslim warriors in return for
loyalty, as well as encourages social reforms like limiting alcohol, and tries
to ban Sati, even tries to create special market day for women. Toleration of
political administration, and military superiority characterized the Mongol
Empire under the rule of Babur and Akbar the great. 5

1 Elliott Ramm, “The
Rise of the Ottoman Empire”, Sultan reigns and significant event. Accessed January
22, 2018.

2 Jeffery Hays, “Ottoman
Military. Government and Commerce”, Ottoman Army. Accessed January 20, 2018,

3 Burak Sansal, “All
About Turkey”, the Ottoman Sultans and their Dynasty. Accessed January 22,

4 Sally MacEachern, “The 16th
and 17th Centuries.” In The New Cultural Atlas of The Islamic World.
Accessed January 20, 2018.

5 Douglas
Austin, “Gunpowder Empires Three of the Great Empires of History.” Mongols in
India. Accessed in January 25, 2018.