For the Lisp computer language, that was designed for

For this final essay,
I picked artificial intelligence “AI” as a discipline. First, I have to say
that out of the five topics given in the brief, this was the most important in
my point of view. “Andy Robin” the man behind Android, once said ‘AI is the
next big operating system’. I personally think artificial intelligence is the
new trend; it is clear that computers with human-level knowledge or better
would affect our ordinary lives by having a huge impact on our future. Going
back to John McCarthy the father of AI.


When did John
McCarthy become the father of AI? It all started in 1955 when the American
computer scientist and inventor was first known by the father of AI, right
after the first artificial intelligence conference at Dartmouth college that
took place in 1956, which had an objective to explore ways to make a machine
that reasons like a human. On the other side of this, he really thought that
any form of intelligence made by a human could be precisely described for a
machine to stimulate it. In 1958 he created the Lisp computer language, that
was designed for easy manipulation of data strings used as a language for AI
programming and continues to be used today not only in mechanical autonomy or
robotics and other scientific applications but in a plenty of web-based
services. It also paved the way for voice recognition technology such as SIRI
‘the personal assistant app on the iPhone that started in 2010’. At first, and
before shifting to Digital, AI was based on a conversion of multiple sciences
and professions converged such as “computer sciences, mathematics, philosophy,
linguistics, psychology, neurosciences, and artificial psychology”.

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Until now, artificial
intelligence has always been applied when a machine imitates cognitive
functions such as reasoning, memory, attention, and language that humans use to
connect with one another. Artificial intelligence could be described as
creating a reasoning, learning and problem-solving system. In AI, an
intelligent agent is an independent entity that observes through sensors and
acts upon an environment using a mechanism that puts it into automatic action,
that directs it’s activity towards goal achievement that they may learn to
achieve: slide4. These intelligent agents are closely related to software
agents such as a chatbot executing on a phone “Siri”. Artificial intelligence
has four requirements, to be able to communicate successfully, AI requires a
natural language process; to store the provided information before or during
the interrogation, it requires a knowledge representation; to use the stored
data or information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions, automated
reasoning is the requirement; and finally machine learning to adapt to new
circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns: slide5.


Moreover, artificial
intelligence is considered the next big technological shift due to multiple
case studies where AI is used for many reasons. Such as NETFLIX, which recently
added AI to their movie recommendation program that predicts what users might
be interested in, due to previous viewing behavior slide8. As to Facebook: slide
9, BOTBOT: slide 10, and Sophia, the humanoid robot by Hanson Robotics: slide
11. Artificial intelligence is becoming more natural and it is interacting
verbally with voice assistants and nonverbally with expressions such as
physical hardware (robots facial expression) that could be very useful in the
future. AI will continue to get better at problem solving in it’s many ways,
while delivering to humans that machines will tell us what we want and that we
can trust them by making our lives easier is the main message behind it.
Nowadays, AI is used to solve many problems and most of them are giving the
opportunity to humans with disabilities to be able to be capable of reliving a
normal life slide 12. Artificial intelligence is after all programmed to do
something beneficial, however it develops a method that is destructive to
achieve its goal.


To sum up, artificial
intelligence is the study and design of intelligent agents that perceives its
environment and takes actions that maximizes the chances of its prosperity.
John McCarthy, who coined the term, defines it as the sciences and engineering
of making intelligent machines. The final goal of institutions and scientists
operating on AI is to elucidate the majority of issues and to acquire the tasks,
which we humans directly can’t accomplish. It is surely that this
development in the computer sciences field will change the whole scenario of
the world. Only
time will verbally express what will be the future of AI: will it procure human
level? or above human level? Intelligence? or not? Although, humans
increasingly collaborate with artificial intelligence, the challenge for us is
to insure that we anticipate all consequences of any negative health and safety
by sharing this knowledge to benefit the future working world as a digital