For hypothesis 2 cluster analysis was done and the results
of the distribution of the two market categories – buyers’ market and sellers’
market along with the group means for the sellers’ market characteristics.
After the analysis it was observed that there was a predominance of a sellers’
market environment and the existence of three different types of sellers’
market situations. The third research hypothesis – differences in demarketing
activity performance on the basis of sellers’ market characteristics was
analysed by inputting the cluster analysis results to the ANOVA procedure, to
identify statistically significant sellers’ market characteristics. Further
analysis of these significant variables led to several observations about how
companies in Africa adapt to different sellers’ market environments.
A research paper elaborated upon the Indian scenario of
Demarketing of Injurious consumption, it is not defined as such in any book
because there are various perceptions of different people regarding the term.
Yet an attempt on the definition is “The consumption of any toxic substance
including chemical, plant or animal derivative, drug which is taken in overdose
and alcohol or tobacco or products of it, whose consumption causes damage of
tissues or having adverse effects on human body is called injurious
Alcohol and tobacco have been a cause for many problems
arising in the youth and the abusers and it is seen to be more in the
developing countries rather than that in the developed ones. Government of India has also started working
on the reduction of consumption, also the non-governmental organisations have
put in their efforts in this direction.
In India, 90% of the consumption comes from bidis and is
increasing at the rate of 2% per year. The death toll accountable because of
the alcohol and tobacco has touched combined to 10 million or so. Most of the
deaths are by untreated Oral cancer (mouth, lip, tongue, pharynx) which is
caused by smokeless tobacco. India has introduced a Tobacco Control Bill in
2001 which focusses on the prohibition of advertisements and regulation of the
trade and commerce, supply and distribution.
Demarketing has been a great strategy to reduce the use of
tobacco and other injurious consumption products. It has mainly been through
policies, by tax hikes, safeguarding illegal production, discouraging drinking
and tobacco control laws. A lot has to
do with the advertising of such products which give loopholes to the companies
who find many other ways to advertise.
Awareness, Prevention, protection and Prosecution can be considered as
the tools of demarketing. It is the only strategy to decrease the consumption and
focus should be on the health education of people rather than the control.
NGO’s such as HRIDAY and SHA also play an important role in demarketing. Media
has adverse effect on the consumption as it encourages consumption by
incorporating glamour and celebrities, directly or indirectly.
Another paper discusses about the study carried out in
France, amongst the young people to study impact of tobacco plain packaging vs
the branded packing, this was conducted in terms of customer behaviour and
perceptions. In marketing one of the most important part is Packaging as it
conveys brand identity (logos, trademarks, colours and pictures) and encourages
the buying behaviour of the people.
The aim of plain cigarette packaging proposed by the WHO is
to destroy this marketing effect of the tobacco pack and motivate people to
quit smoking. In response people rated the packs itself instead of cigarettes
calling it less attractive or less trendy, less value for money.
The Marketing aspect of Tobacco packages: The marketer’s
influence the behaviour of the smokers by adding a tag to the packs ad light,
mild, ultra-light; so as to make them think that it is less irritant to their
body. Also, some of the packs are made stylish to go with the persons look.
Effect of demarketing by usage of plain packs: Plain packs
were seen as less attractive and less trendy, and it induced quitting
motivation in many people.
Other observations were colour impacts buyer’s behaviour,
mostly white and brown is perceived to be apt for the cigarette packs. Brown
being the optimal colour used in the plain packs as it is disliked and
associated with dirt.
The smokers were evaluated on the basis of several factors
like the Packaging Vs Gender, age, smoking status, warning, brand name,
intention to buy, etc.