Executive orders can have a variety ofeffects for our country, both good and bad. Executive order 13228 has had apositive impact on America. Executive Order 13228, established the Office ofHomeland Security that is held responsible for ensuring the safety of theUnited States from terrorist attacks and disasters.
Although the attacks ofSeptember 11th, played a role for the initiation of the ExecutiveOrder, it has put in place organization that was previously not there in order todetect vital intelligence for the importance of protecting the United States.The Department of Homeland Security is still not perfect and often is criticizeddue to its responses to significant events, but it has paved a way for future improvementsin preparations in order to deal with terrorism and disasters within the UnitedStates. It has set fourth organization which was previously not there. Section 3 focuses on the functions andnational strategy. Specifically working with agencies, State and localgovernments, and NGO’s detection for the detection, prevention, preparing andprotecting the United States and its citizens in the event of a terroristattack, as well as the recovery process in the event of a terrorist threats orattack within the United States.
In addition, it outlines detection and pinpoints the importance of communications between all agencies for effectivecommunication to occur. This also allows the passing of intelligenceinformation, which contains information of imminent threats. This way it willeliminate the event of an actual attack. Section three also outlines theresponse and recovery which includes medical, financial aid to victims ofnatural disasters and terrorist threats. It concentrates on the restoration offacilities and removal of contaminants, which may come as a result ofsignificant attacks or events. Other focal points of section three includeincident management which appoints the Assistant to the President for HomelandSecurity as the primary individual for coordinating the domestic responseefforts of all departments and agencies in the event of a terrorist attack aswell as post attack.
This also identifies the Assistant to the President forHomeland Security as the principal point of contact to the President. The continuityof government identifies the need for the assistant to the President forHomeland Security and the assistant to the President for National SecurityAffairs, to work hand in hand to review plans and the preparation process forthe continuity of government. Lastly,section three covers public affairs which will focus on the delivery ofinformation to the public, as well as response and precaution information.
Section 4 and 5 state the administration is directed by the assistant to thepresident for DHS and establishment of Homeland Security Council, which isresponsible for advising and assisting the President with all aspects ofhomeland security.Section 1 of Executive order 13f228details the responsibilities of the Office of Homeland Security states The detection,preparedness, prevention, protection against, response to, and recovery fromterrorist attacks within America. Section 2 focuses on its mission statement.The mission focuses on the strategy to protect the United States from enemythreat and attacks.
The creation ofthe Office of Homeland security under executive order 13228 was a positive change for America andhistorically impacted our country and impacted homeland security. Included inDHS are the departments of Justice; ExecutiveOffice of Immigration Review, Defense; national defense and bio weapons, Energy;includes the environmental laboratory, Agriculture; animal and plant health, Commerce;computer security, State; visa services, Transportation; TSA, Human Services;medical response and preparedness and Treasury; FLETC and customs). The FederalEmergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the General Services Administration are independentoffices. There are several historic eventsin the United States history that resulted in the establishment of executiveorders. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, on United States soilresulted in the creation of Executive Order 13228, which was signed by GeorgeW. Bush. The attacks which took place on 9-11 highlighted several weaknessesand vulnerabilities in America.
It reflected on the fact that the United Stateswas not prepared in the initial response to these attacks. Executive Order13228 ultimately established the Office of Homeland Security along with itsdirector who was appointed as the assistant to the president for homelandsecurity, as outlined in section 1. Under George W. Bush’s proposal, DHS wouldorganize and structure responses and involvement between all governmentagencies on emergency responses.
Since there was no organization andcommunication problems with all responding agencies, this was somethingimportant that had to be put in place.Historically,executive orders have been issued by all the Presidents of the United States,starting with George Washington’s first executive order on June 8, 1789. An executive order is issued by the President of the UnitedStates, with the power from Congress and the Constitution. There are several things similar toan executive order such as the president’s directive, memorandum and notice,just to name a few.
Generally what distinguishes a Presidents Executive Orderis the requirement for it to be published and circulated amongst the federalregister and Code of Regulations in order for it to have a legal effect. Executiveorders also don’t require congress approval which makes it a critical tool forthe President, since they can be used to set policy and in order to avoidopposition.