Each country has its own health disparities, which are influencedby a number of contributing factors such as public policy, history, and gender.In 2010, Haiti suffered amassive earthquake that killed a couple hundred thousand people and leftmillions in need of urgent medical attention. Historically, Haiti alreadyhad a weak national infrastructure; but the earthquake completely demolishedit. Not only was Haiti’s infant and maternal mortality already highbefore the earthquake, but they also had high rates of malaria, filariasis, andrabies, which are conditions that have been controlled in other countries along time ago.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)recognized the value of reconstruction of Haiti’s public health system alongwith other countries who are also recovering from catastrophic events. Asa result, they established a program called the Health Systems ReconstructionProgram (HSRP). The CDC, Haiti’s government and other internationalpartners aim to rebuild Haiti’s public health infrastructure. Their goalis to make it stronger than before. Strong public health systems arenecessary for maintaining and improving one’s health and wellbeing; luckily,Haiti has made progress towards its public health system. The Philippines and theUnited States have a five year plan, which mobilizes both country’s resourcesin order to address the Philippine’s most serious limitations for economicgrowth and development. They identified the two main limitations as weakgovernance and narrow fiscal space. Based on these limitations, thepartnership plan consists of three themes of intervention.
These interventionsinclude Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and Anti-Corruption, and FiscalPerformance. Regulatory quality includes the promotion of an environmentthat attracts investment, trade, and private sector growth. For rule oflaw, they plan on enhancing judicial efficiency through the improvement oftimely resolution of court cases that undermine trade, investment climate, andbusiness confidence. They also plan on lowering public sector corruption. They plan to do this through reducing opportunities for corruption, as wellas increasing punitive risks, especially for large-scale cases. As forfiscal performance, this partnership plans on improving expenditure managementof government agencies, reducing tax leakages, and addressing insufficientrevenue generation. Iraq is a very unique countryin the sense that it does not benefit from a stable system of publicadministration. In fact, it actually lacks such a network.
According to the 2015 USAID-Tarabot Iraq Administration ReformProject-Annual Report, Iraq’s public administration fell into a crisis back in2015. This crisis stemmed from a small shortage in resources. Theirproject focused on controlling government expenses, increasing oil revenues andimproving public procurement. One of the most important moves made bytheir government includes the Public Procurement Reform, which is a reform ofthe public housing system. This process represents Iraq’s aim to buildconfidence among the private sector. However, continued turmoil has compromisedthe country’s performance as an adaptive yet complex system.
It is knownthat Iraq has had its fair share of political and social chaos. The wareventually turned into a downward spiral for the Middle Eastern country. Nonetheless, Iraq has made significant efforts towards adopting measuresof good governance. This has resulted in an attempt to change theperception of it being an unwelcoming nation to foreign states. The Iraqigovernment has adopted a series of policies that are connected to electricityissues and high dropout rates in schools, which are the most serious problemsof the country, as well as corruption. They have incorporated a number ofelements into their public policy making process.
Unfortunately, Iraqlacks these elements to produce realistic alternatives in order to tackle thecountry’s most pressing public issues. They discovered the main issue isthat Iraqi people do not consult to other stakeholders when it comes to policymaking, which has led to a negative effect in drafting policies and the overallsystem of public administration.In the mid-1990s, Italy wasone of the first countries in the world to reach the lowest low in fertility levels. The country started making progress entering the new millennium; however,their progress stopped when their economy hit a recession. In fact, thebirth rate has been declining and is expected to continue to decline due tofewer women being of reproductive age. Historically, southern Italy had ahigher fertility rate than the north. However, today it is the opposite.
Southern Italy tends to have a more traditional approach to gender rolesand family values. However, in the north the economy is stronger, thereare more migrants in the population and childcare services are more developed. Also,low fertility has been associated with a transition towards a woman givingbirth later in life or even not having a child at all. Italy lacks acoherent system of policies to support childbearing or facilitate work-familyreconciliation (Low fertility, 2015). Also, a lack of consensus betweenpolitical parties and religious views has prevented the formulation of policiesthat are family friendly. Another issue is that Italy has a huge publicdebt.
This is a result of a structural characteristic of the national economy.However, Italy is quite generous when it comes to maternal leave. Both parentscan take parental leave for up to 10 months. However, they won’t be wellcompensated.
On the other hand, the problem is not only poor familypolicies, but also their inconsistency with policies in other areas. Developing a better labor market would make it easier for young people tonot only move away from their parents, but to also start families of their own. Policies, such as adopting a minimum wage, easier access to credit, anddeveloping a larger supply of public housing could speed up people’s transitionto adulthood. Policies such as flexible work schedules, longer schooldays and more part-time jobs and daycare centers could be effective forwork-family reconciliation. The last type of policy needed would be agender policy, which would promote the role of active fathers while lesseningdiscrimination towards working mothers.