Development is a multi-faceted phenomenon in which governance is the most fundamental issue that helps manage the development activities. Governance is, in fact, defined as a process how to manage state affairs and also people’s affairs. Political stability is considered to be inevitable for good governance. In other words, political violence seems to become a serious obstacle to the way of governance in nation-states.
In Bangladesh, political violence has become a common feature that tremendously affects the country’s governance process and eventually the development endeavors over the years. Bangladesh is relatively a young developing country in terms of experiencing Western liberal democracy as a political system. The country was born in 1971 as an independent and sovereign nation and since then it has opted for democracy of Western variety albeit at different junctures of its political history democracy has been impeded and replaced by the both civil and military autocratic regimes.
Although political violence has massively affected governance in Bangladesh, the country is doing extremely well in every sector over the last couple of years. Researchers have found visible improvements particularly in poverty alleviation and economic progress. However, political violence has become a core governance problem having largely adverse effects. World Bank’s World Development Report 2011 highlights the detrimental effects of political violence resulting in negative impacts on economy and poverty reduction target.
. IRI (International Republican Institute) and Democracy International, an US based non-profit organization–Working for Advancing Democracy– , in an opinion survey, found that Bangladesh is heading in the wrong direction due to political conflict, instability and probable escalation of violence in the days to come. It is seen the major parties have retained armed cadre groups as politics here in Bangladesh is fraught with unrest, confrontation, rivalry and mistrust. Where proliferation of small arms and interlinks between organized criminals and political parties, as serious threat to public order. Islamist radicalism in Bangladesh is driven largely by competition between the mainstream political parties, has also generated insecurity for a cross-section of the society including working women, bloggers, writers, freedom loving people, journalists and so forth.
. Many people have died in massive political violence and many more have suffered injuries in varied degrees while public-private properties have been ruined and trains and vehicles have been torched. Structural and procedural variables are intimately a part of wider view, since men’s experience of change in social and political landscapes may crate the revolutionary state of mind. Erosion of democratic space has been an important feature of the political landscape over the recent years in Bangladesh. Repression is not, of course, only thing that can affect the degree of political violence, evidently, charismatic leadership, religious controversy, ideological change, and probably other things as well; also have an independent influence on the degree of instability in any country. Political turmoil is the consequence of social discontent, a motivational prediction, reaffirms the often-repeated insight that political protest and violence begin in the minds of men. The consequent lack of alignment between expectations and attainments creates the intolerable discrepancy which is assumed as the motivational antecedent of political violence.
Frustration-aggression hypothesis is most useful for our purpose because of its basic and fundamental formulation; frustration itself is defined as the thwarting or interference with the attainment of goals, aspirations, or expectations. On the basis of frustration-aggression theory, it is postulated that frustration induced by the political system creates the social strain and discontent that in turn are the indispensable preconditions of violence. If conflicting policies are administered with other inconsistencies within the domain of political system exemplify another set of circumstances that ripen the impulse toward political violence. So we need an effort to identify those modes of change that can be presumed to lead to the discontent that is the necessary precondition of political instability and violence.