Cyber ransomware attacks were seen per day[Computer Crime and

Cyber security in the software world


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This report deliberates
the importance of cyber security when it comes to the real world, and the
economical downfall that is caused by the booming of several cyber-attacks, the
review also explores into the exploitation of the computers that has encouraged
present day crimes, and the code of ethics that surrounds an individual
professional. In addition, we also discuss the legislative frameworks that has
been implemented to restrain cyber security attacks.



The information
technology has evolved immensely over the past couple of years, and as it
expands it brings in more threats in harm’s way. There is an increased concern
regarding the protection of ICT systems from unknown cyber-attacks.  The perception of modern society from their
perspective is the cause of many cyber-attacks as high addiction of information
technology made us liable to the cyber-attacks that disturb the data.
Cyber-attacks are carried out in various forms and threat levels such as DoS
attack, Trojan attacks, Phishing attacks, E-mail bombing, Cyber trafficking,
Brute force attacks and many more. Although no other technical definition by
any legal or the lawful body for cybercrime. It is being defined by computer
research Centre as “Crimes committed on internet using the computer either as
tool or a target”. Heightened role of information technology and rise of the
e-commerce sector has turned cyber security into a very crucial policy issue
all over the world. Cyber security means safeguarding information, assets and
the computer document or the resources stored. As in the growing era modern
thief can steal more with the computer than the gun.         


Literature review


There are three factors which depends on the risk associated, threats
(who is attacking), vulnerabilities (the weakness they are attacking) and
impacts (the effects of the attack). The threat that these attacks bring is not
.There are many incidents regarding these crimes in the past years for example
More than 4,000 ransomware attacks have occurred every day since the beginning
of 2016.That’s a 300% increase over 2015, where 1,000 ransomware attacks were
seen per dayComputer Crime and Intellectual Property
Section (CCIPS). Phishing emails have continued to grow as an attack
vector for ransomware. The statistic reported by PhishMe earlier in 2016  was shocking, with 92% of phishing emails
they collected containing ransomware in the first quarter of 2016PhishMe 2016 Q3 Malware Review, as we can see the
types of attacks has increased by an alarming amount. A distributed denial of
service or DDOS is a major attack in which multiple compromised computer
systems target a server or a website flooding with unwanted data thus slowing
down or crashing the system, thus making it the single largest threat, there
are many recent examples.

On the end of November 2016 a wave of DDos attacks hit
at least five Russian banks, the attack was conducted by a series of botnets
consisting of around 10000 computers which were located at around 10 countries,
fortunately the attack was considered a weak one, even though it is known as
the first time hackers have conducted a massive DDos campaign against Russian
banks since October 2015.

During the period of the Rio Olympics a DDos for hire
service known as Lizard stresser was responsible for one of the attacks, as the
Olympics were scheduled to begin botnets attacked affiliated organizations using the
lesser-known IP protocol Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) and high-volume
packet-floods destined for UDP/179. The attack ultimately peaked at 540 Gbps.,
an attack like this could have easily destroyed the media coverage of the
Olympics and many more.

Another incident occurred on 21 October 2016, which
affected the servers of a company named Dyn, which controls the internet’s DNS
infrastructure, the cause of this havoc was a series DDos attacks which caused
computers to be infected with malware but what makes the attack special was
because it was carried out using a weapon known as the Mirai botnet, this was
made up from Internet of things devices such as digital cameras and DVR
players, due to this the attack had many devices to choose from thus creating a
bigger attack this made high profile websites like GitHub , Twitter, Spotify,
LinkedIn to go offline and suffer from the service interruptions.

Helping to make sure the security takes place in order
to achieve a successful environment eventually comes down to every government,
business, private institution and individual around the world. We are the
targets when it comes to cybercrime any government department, corporate
network or even your phone can be used for an attack. Good government
regulations, professional and skilled IT staffs in a company and the right
education with proper training can reduce the exposure to cyber-attacks. When
it comes to cyber security it’s not only about defending the technical aspects
of it, it’s also about the people and how we handle data in the workplace, the
information we give out, the emails we send and the sites we access. Therefore,
professional bodies play a major role when it comes to cyber security.

In any company ethics will play a major role and should
be of particular concern when it comes to cyber security
different sectors,
will have their own rules people will have to follow, for an industry as
diverse and skilled as ICT it helps if professionals can demonstrate adherence
to a code of ethics through membership of a professional institution. Many
professional organizations hold their members to standards that ensure the
reputation and respectability of a profession is preserved.


Implications and the framework of the attack


When these attacks occur
we should consider the legal implications for the businesses that suffer
cyber-attacks, the major attack which involved a domain name service
provider(Dyn) caused many casualties for a lot of sites like LinkedIn, Amazon,
Netflix, Reddit, Soundclound. In the Report of June 2014 taken by Center for
Strategic and International Studies stated that yearly cost to the global
economy by the incidents of cybercrime is more than $400 billion. Cybercrime
implications will progressively increment more and more as business functions
are continuously flourishing their business online and more of the company’s
and customers of the world are linking to the internet.

In another incident it
has been reported that money was taken from around 20000 Tesco customer
account. After the attack, Tesco bank has put in measures temporary in order to
stop the current account so that customers won’t be making payments. In
December last year Yahoo has reported two cyber-attacks involving the leak of
details of more than billion accounts, however the biggest problem was not
direct damage from the attack but the several class action suits filed against
it and the investigations by the congress. As we can see these examples
illustrate the grave legal repercussions that can results from a cyberattack on
companies, since they can be exposed by clients whose identity have been


Issues and the
implications that arise from the software world


Nearly every software
development company faces various kinds of challenges throughout its daily
operations and some of these issues have implications.

Before starting initial
phase of the development process, one must have a clear idea about the client’s
requirements. Unfortunately for the developers sometimes what the customer
wants is not what the customer needs, this would be the job of the system
analyst, to recognize the requirements. This doesn’t mean that the client
doesn’t know what he wants from a system, but it’s often the case that the
clients describes the system how it can solve the current problem. Not knowing
clear initial client requirements may affect the workplace in numerous ways
from time management to budget constraints, as an individual you could write
the requirements beforehand, have it signed by the client and explained to the
development team prior of starting the project.

Scheduling work and
keeping the track of project timelines is another issue, the problem lies in
order to track and keeping up with the minimum time allocated for a certain
task this could lead to the final product being in a lower standard, a solution
for this could be as Maia Heyck-Merlin, author of the Together Leader (2016),
suggests that having your team members track their respective times, and by
having the project manager to review the tasks.

Another issue is the
change of requirements; most development companies will inform if the initial
requirements are altered, this will most definitely affect the delivery period,
if this is an outsourcing company it will also cause other projects to be
delayed as well since the projects are arranged sequentially, a solution for
this could be if the clients are informed about necessary changes beforehand.
The task to identify the oncoming delays is up to the project manager, where he
is to communicate with the developers to minimize the delivery period.

The developers are put in
a risk when the requirements to follow should be in a standard that will work
with both global and national markets, due to these reasons of risks the final
product value might decrease in quality and personal contribution would also be
affected, it also affects the professional development and the team based
software since there is high pressure involved when working in teams with less
amount of time. And since the end product received to client has low
expectations, the client may change their product as well. Due to these
problems the best way to solve it is by introducing the Agile methodology in to
the industry, this will help maintain the efficiency and value of the software












conclusion there are many types of cyber-attacks that people are not even aware
of, these attacks can happen in the smallest form from like getting access to
your social media account to the biggest, such as hacking your personal details.
Even big companies with noteworthy resources devoted to cyber security have
suffered from huge compromises and organizations that do not have such levels
of talents have faced even bigger threats. The only solution to attacks like
this would be that organizations would need to understand their threat levels
and the risks they encounter daily, address these cyber security problems and
hire the most suitable professionals to deal with it.


issues that were discussed are common problems that is faced by any software
development companies. And it all comes down to making the procedures and
clearly identifying with who and how the work will be done from within the
company. Another factor which is important to consider is to automate the
processes using the available systems this will help in managing many projects
and also many clients, this will also decrease the time management on a certain
project and focus could be given to the software development and testing.