Counterterrorism and Pakistan The government of Pakistan is now considered to be one ofthe most important partners of the United States in the South Asian region.Since reversing its policy of support to the Taliban in Afghanistan followingthe 9/11 attacks, Pakistan has been hailed as a central partner in the Bushadministration’s global war on terror (GWOT), playing a critical role inhelping to degrade the operational capabilities of al Qaeda and affiliatedTaliban elements fleeing Afghanistan in the wake of Operation Enduring Freedom.Indeed, at the time of writing, Pakistan had rendered more terrorist suspectsto America than any other coalition partner; among the suspects are several”high-value” assets, including Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Sheikh Mohammad, RamziBinalshibh, Abu Farraj al-Libbi, and Ahmed Ghailani. The wave of terrorism and insurgency in Pakistan has broughtimmense loss. More than 60,558 non-combatants and combatants lost their livesto insurrection related violence in Pakistan during 2003-2016 periods. The economic losses incurred are around US$102.5 billion along with severe damage to its religious and culturalvalues. Since 2001, Pakistan has facedan increasingly serious threat from militant groups operating on its soil.
In2009, there was a 48 percent increase in terrorist attacks from 2008 levels,which killed 3,021 people and injured 7,334. The highest number of attacksoccurred in the conflict zones of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA),North West Frontier Province (NWFP), and Baluchistan Province, including Punjabwere also targeted by a lethal campaign of bombings. Militant groupsincreasingly resorted to suicide attacks, which killed or wounded a growingnumber of civilians. There was a 32 percent increase in suicide attacks in 2009from 2008 levels, which killed 1,299 people and injured 3,633.
Both Pakistanigovernment and foreigners was the victim of these terrorist activities. In addition, there were several serious internationalterrorist plots with links to Pakistan. In May 2010, Faisal Shahzad attemptedto set off a car bomb in New York, but it malfunctioned. In December 2009, fiveAmericans from Alexandria, Virginia—Ahmed Abdullah Minni, Umar Farooq, AmanHassan Yemer, Waqar Hussain Khan, and Ramy Zamzam—were arrested in Pakistan andcharged with plotting terrorist attacks. There were other plots to attack U.S.
targets with links to Pakistan, including those involving Najibullah Zazi (whowas arrested in 2009) and the British residents who planned to detonate liquidexplosives on at least 10 airplanes traveling from the United Kingdom to theUnited States and Canada (who were arrested in 2006). In February 2010, Zazipleaded guilty in U.S. District Court to “conspiracy to use weapons of massdestruction” and “providing material support for a foreign terroristorganization” based in Pakistan. Counterterrorism Counterterrorism corresponds to actions to ameliorate thethreat and consequences of terrorism. These actions can be taken bygovernments, military alliances, international organizations (e.
g., INTERPOL),private corporations, or private citizens. Counterterrorism comes in two basicvarieties: defensive and proactive measures. Defensive countermeasures protect potential targets bymaking attacks more costly for terrorists or reducing their likelihood ofsuccess. When, however, successful terrorist attacks ensue, defensive actionsalso serve to limit the resulting losses to the target. Defensive measures havegenerally been reactive, instituted after some successful or innovativeterrorist attacks. In the USA, airline passengers are now required to removetheir shoes when being screened, following the innovative, but fortunatelyunsuccessful, attempt by Richard Reid to bring down American Airlines flight 63en route from Paris to Miami on 22 December 2001 with explosives hidden in hisshoes. Before the installation of metal detectors to screen passengers at USairports on 5 January 1973, there were on average over 25 skyjackings each yearin the USA.
Defensive or protectivecounterterror actions may involve more than technological barriers. Otherinstances of defensive measures include target hardening, such as defensiveperimeters around government buildings or embassies, or guards at key points ofa country’s infrastructure. Defensive measures can also take the form ofissuing terrorism alerts, enacting stiffer penalties for terrorism offenses,enhancing first-responder capabilities, and stockpiling antibiotics and antidotesfor biological and chemical terrorist attacks. This list of defensive actionsis by no means exhaustive. By contrast, proactive measures are offensive as a targetedgovernment directly confronts the terrorist group or its supporters. Proactivemeasures may destroy terrorists’ resources (e.
g., training camps), curb theirfinances, eliminate their safe havens, or kill and capture their members. Inrecent years, the Obama administration has relied on drone attacks toassassinate terrorist leaders and operatives. Proactive operations may assumemyriad other forms, including a retaliatory raid against a state sponsor thatprovides resources, training, sanctuary, logistical support, or intelligence toa terrorist group. On 15 April 1986, the USA launched a retaliatory bombingraid on targets in Libya for its alleged support in the terrorist bombing ofthe La Belle discotheque in West Berlin on 4 April 1986, where 3 died and 231were wounded, including 62 Americans. Other proactive measures include infiltrating terrorist groups, engagingin military action, conducting propaganda campaigns against the terrorists, andgathering intelligence to foil terror plots The main focus of these counterterrorism techniques is tomitigate the terror threat and also cut down its roots.
But the later seemdifficult, as these militants have camouflaged themselves within public.Legality and protection of human rights are the concerning matter whilingoperating these counter measures. Mostly the proactive measures have these problemsas these measures are pre-emptive too and military actions are taken directlyto destroy the resources or sanctuaries of terrorists. So first of all theseactions must be legalized their purposemust be approved with authentic provisions and the most important is thatwhiling these operations public rights must be protected and also theirresources.