Cosmetics was embellished in plaits and looped into bows.

Cosmetics of different sorts have
been in practice since early human history, but became more known throughout
the 1800s. By the ending of the 19th century, beauty was huge, with cosmetic
counters opening within department stores promoting rouges, lip balms and fine
powders. Tinted foundations were accessible, but were not favoured, particularly
among women of a fine reputation. Powder, often made from rice flour, was worn
by women of the superior classes and was considered acceptable. Pricey
additions were sometimes added to powders, like compressed pearl. The use of heavy
makeup was most commonly related with prostitutes. Rosy cheeks were regarded as
a sign of good health and women regularly used blush or rouge to add colour to
their cheeks. This was the most popular makeup of the 19th century. Blushes
were available in liquids, powders and creams. Several different shades were
sold, most tinted with a colouring called carmine. Some women also made their
own, using flowers and other natural pigments to create blush at home. Eye and lips were
some of the less common cosmetics. Lamp black, or soot, was sometimes laced
with oil or water to form a black product that could be used as eyeliner,
shadow or mascara. The effect was unnatural and not as commonly used. Rouge
could darken lips with pink or red hue. Embellishments were pastes, powders and paints, used to adjust
appearance, Zinc oxide became widely used as a facial powder, replacing lead
and copper. Hair styles in the 19th century included the forehead jewel, feathers
and faux flowers. The Apollo knot was a hairstyle introduced that gave the hair
stature and was popular. To achieve the complex confection, hair was centrally
parted and brushed up to the crown, where it was embellished in plaits and looped
into bows. Occasionally false hair plaits were used to help it stay in place. Men of fashion began to wear their hair short and natural,
sporting cropped curls and extended sideburns. The elaborate and expensive wigs
lent an air of perception and ascendancy to wearers. At the beginning of the period, dresses were simple
with small puffed sleeves and some embellishment around the hem of the full
skirt. By the end of the decade they became shorter and puffed sleeves enlarged,
balancing the bell-shaped skirt, emphasizing the small corseted waist.
The fashion of 19th century is known by corsets, bonnets, top hats, bustles and
petticoats. Women’s fashion during the Victorian period was largely dominated
by full skirts, which moderately moved to the back of the silhouette. However,
towards the end of the century, the less restrictive style began to emerge. For
those who could afford new outfits regularly, woman’s fashion changed swiftly. The point of crinoline was to create an hourglass image
by highlighting the hips, and giving the illusion of a small waist with the
corset. The cage crinoline was assembled by joining thin metal strips together
to create a structure that could solely support the sizeable width of the
skirt. Men wore a frock coat, with a slim fitted waist. A waistcoat, also
known as a vest, along with their shirt, trousers, tie and hat. The hats were
tall black top hats and removable collars and cuffs were worn. Clothes during the 19th Century were made
of cotton, cotton muslin, line and silk and superfine fabrics. Shoes were made from silk, twilled cotton and
leather. Drapers, haberdashers, hosiers and mercers supplied fine materials
like gauze and trimmings for dressmakers and ladies who liked to trim their own
dresses and bonnets. When Queen Victoria arised
to the throne, everybody looked up to the young royal for more than parliamentary
reasons. Victoria represented a new era for fashion and inspired everyone from
the court to the common woman. When Prince Albert passed away, Victoria wore black
as she was mourning. In aid of this, the public united wearing black and it began
a statement. Necklines got higher, increasing the size of collars. Wealthy women wore corsets under their dresses. At the beginning of Victoria’s reign it was popular to
wear a crinoline under
a skirt. These hoops and
petticoats made skirts very
spacious. Later in the period skirts were
restricted with a shape at the back called a bustle. The Victorian boy would
also often wear a sailor’s suit. Poor Victorian children wore second hand
stitched up, mended clothes. Corsets were also stiff and
restricted movement. Although the clothes were not comfortable, the type
of materials and coatings
worn were a symbol of wealth. However, the exposure of neckline was only
restricted to the upper and middle class. Working class women were not permitted
to show so much skin.