Clostridium difficilebacteria can exist everywhere from soil, air, water, animals and people. A fewnumber of people carry by nature this bacteria in their large intestine withoutaffecting them.The discovery of thebacterium was in 1935, but only in 1978 was declared as “disease causing”. Thename of the bacteria “difficile” comes from the fact that the bacteria was atthe beginning very hard to distinguish and culture.
Early examinations found thatthe bacteria was situated in the gastrointestinal tract of infants;consequently, researchers inferred that the species was a typical, commensallife form, the same as E. coli. So, in the late 1970s, additionallyinvestigations demonstrated that C. diff was in reality the central reason forpseudomembranous colitis.The primary contactwith another host is happening through an epithelial surface. This might be theskin or the interior mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastro-intestinal,and urogenital tracts. In the wake of reaching, the infectious agent has tofigure it out how to cling to the epithelial surface, and afterward colonizingit, or entering inside to duplicate.
Immediately after the person is infected,the bacteria gets installed in the GI tract and then efface past by, bowelmotion.The bacteria is agram-positive, anaerobic, spore forming rod-shaped micro-organism measuring 0.5-1.0×3.
0-16.0µm. The cultivation of C.difficile dependsstrictly on anaerobic conditions and pre-diminished media.
On the particularcycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar, the colonies of the bacteria will appearyellow and flat, with a ground-glass appearance and an encompassing yellowcorona.Sporulation isimperative for clostridium difficile to cause illness and the ability to resiston every surface and also resistant to numerous antibiotics and disinfectants,resulting in easing the process of transmitting the bacteria. Clostridium difficileis associated with around 20 percent cases of antibiotic associated diarrhea, unevenness of fecal microflora permits cytotoxic clostridium difficileto prosper and to create toxins A and B which harm the colonic endothelium.Obtaining a toxigenic bacteria and the inability of the body to mount ananamnestic toxin A lgG immunizer reaction leads to development of Clostridiumdifficile. After gaining access to the digestive tract the bacteria is enteringin a vegetative state and starts to extend.
Likewise is starting to emit toxinA, an enterotoxin and a cytoxin ( toxin B ).The role of toxin A is to makeopenings into the cells making their substance to spill out, and causingdiarrhea as overflow from the cell liquid enters the digestive system. Thepurpose of the cytoxins is to harm the cells .the second toxin (B) is damagingthe cytoskeleton of the cells which is leading to colitis and abdominal pain.