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??? ???                     ID? DG1630505 Climate, CulturalDifferences between North and South ChinaChina is the world’smost populated country, having population of around 1.404 billion covering approx.9,600,000 sq km. China is an ancient, mystifying, striking and beautiful landwhich is always tempting to adventurous foreign visitors. The way China isdoing progress, it is implicited that it may become the world’s largesteconomic leader in 10-15 years. In this case, it is advantageous to have someinteresting facts about this huge country.

China’s climateChinahas great physical diversity.The eastern plains and southern coasts of the country consist of fertilelowlands and foothills and is the location of most of China’s agriculturaloutput and human population. The southern parts of China consist of hilly,mountainous terrain. The west and north of the country are dominated bysunken basins  andtowering massifs. The line thatgenerally divides China into fairly distinctive northern and southern culturalzones runs along the Qinling Mountains from Sichuan through southern Shaanxiprovince eastward along the Huai River to the Pacific.

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Due to the summermonsoons, south is generally warm and wet. This is principally due to the factthat when the summer monsoons move from southeast to northwest, they depositmost of their moisture before reaching this line. The North China plain isrelatively arid.  Given the size and variedlandscape of the country, there is no specific time in the year i.e weather conditions changesacross the whole land, especially in winter, stem from the cold weather inSiberia and the Mongolian Plateau, causing a huge temperature differentiationbetween south (0 ? and above) and north (well below 0 ?).However, the summer except for a few remote areas,the country is almost all high temperature, temperature difference between thenorth and south is not huge. The China’s climate is particularly dominated bydry season and wet monsoon, having considerable differences between winter andsummer temperatures.

The northern winds that come from high latitudes in winterare usually cold and dry. However, in the summer, the south winds that blow inthe low latitudes are warm and humid.Climate in NorthChinaChinais a huge country, and has a great deal of climates because of tremendousdifferences in latitude, longitude, and altitude, ranging from tropical inthe far south to subarctic in the distant north and alpine in the higher elevations of the Tibetan Plateau.Provinces included: Heilongjiang, Jilin,Liaoning, Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia Climate characteristics: Most of the northern parts of China are of temperatecontinental climate, except some areas are of plateau climate. Therefore, it isbitterly cold in winter and hot in summer, with a large temperature differencebetween winter and summer and even between day and night. There is scarcity ofrainfall, and the rainy days are mainly in summer.

  For destinations such as Xinjiang (Urumqi) and Inner Mongolia(Hohhot), summer is dry and sweltering while winter is formidably cold.Sandstorms sometimes occur in April in North China, especially in the Inner Mongoliaand Beijing parts. Tips for travelers to visit NorthChina:  ? Normally, late summer and autumn is best time to visit, with mildclimate and stunning landscape (except Harbin where the annual InternationalIce and Snow Festival is held in winter). ? You may prepare with a gauze mask in case of sandstorms or hazy weather.  Climate in the South ChinaProvinces included: The following provinces are included in south region ofChina.Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi,Fujian, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hong Kong,Macau, hainan, Taiwan Climatecharacteristics: Most parts of South China are oftropical subtropical monsoon climate, with high temperature and ample rainfallin summer and mild weather and little rainfall in winter.

 In summer season, the heat and humidity can be unbearablecausing the visitors to feel very uncomfortable. Typhoons are commonly found herethat can bring strong wind and very heavy rain which can last for a few days ata time to the coastal regions. These are most frequent from July to October. Destinations such as Guangxi (Guilin)and Guangdong (Guangzhou and Shenzhen) Provinces, thewinter days are short and comparatively comfortable. Hot and humid season islonger than other parts since April to October as usual. Destinations likeKunming, Guiyang and Dali are mild throughout the year. Tips for travelers to visit South China: ? It is suitable to visit all yearround.

 ?The rainy season of most of the partsruns from May to August, so bring with adequate rain gear, clothes andshoes. ? Typhoons frequently occur in thesoutheast coast (destinations such as Shanghai, Hangzhou, Fujian, Guangdong)between July and September, so you may keep my eye on the weather in caseanything unexpected happening to your planned China tour.       China’s culture  Chinese have long had different self-awareness andregional stereotypes in South and North China.

There seem to be many basicthings, such as geographical environment, history, language, cuisine, traditions,culture and many other stereotypes that has divided China into two halves. Thiscondtion is quite known and is sustained therefor 800 years.  According to theWorld Bank, about 1.4 billion people that live inChina, they represent 56 ethnic minority groups.

Out of these groups,  the largest group is the Han Chinese, with about900 million people. Other groups comprise the Tibetans, the Mongols, theManchus, the Naxi, and the Hezhen, having fewer than 2,000 people so its thesmallest group of all. Cristina De Rossi,who is an anthropologist at Barnet and South gateCollege in London says “Significantly, individuals within communitiescreate their own culture,”. Culture basically includes religion, style,language, food, marriage, music, morals and all the other things that areresponsible for making up a criteria of how a group acts and interacts witheachother.

Religion According tothe Council on Foreign Relations, the Chinese Communist Partythat set laws of the nation is officially atheist, although it is graduallybecoming more liberal of religions, Recently, there are only five officialreligions. Apart from Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism,other religions are illegal, although the Chinese constitution states thatpeople have given freedom of religion. The gradual tolerance of religion hasonly started to evolve in the past few decades. Almost a quarter of the peoplepractice Taoism and Confucianism and other traditional religions. Also thereare small numbers of Buddhists, Muslims and Christians. Even though numerousProtestant and Catholic ministries have been found to be active in the countrysince the early 19th century, but they have made little progress in convertingChinese to these religions.LanguageThere are seven majorgroups of dialects of the Chinese language, which each have their ownvariations, says Mount Holyoke College.

Mandarin language is generally spokenby 71.5 percent of the inhabitants. It is further followed by Wu (8.5 percent),Yue (also called Cantonese; 5 percent), Xiang (4.8 percent), Min (4.1 percent),Hakka (3.7 percent) and Gan (2.

4 percent).  Jerry Norman, authorof “Chinese Cambridge Language Surveys” (CambridgeUniversity Press, 1988) says,  “Chinese is quite more like a languagefamily than a single language made up of a number of regional forms,”He further wrote;  “The Chinese dialectal complex is in numerousways comparable to the Romance language family in Europe. Like for example,there is certainly as much dissimilarity between the dialects of PekingBeijing and Chaozhou as there is between Italian and French.”  According tothe Order of the President of the People’s Republic of China, theofficial national language of China is P?t?nghuà, a type of Mandarin spoken inthe capital Beijing.

Numerous Chinese are also fluent in English.  The arts Chinese art isgreatly inclined by the country’s rich spiritual and mystical history as manysculptures and paintings portray spiritual figures of Buddhism, says the Metropolitan Museum of Art,Many musical instruments are vital to Chinese culture, togetherwith the flute-like xun and the guqin, which is in the zither family. Chinese of the past weremostly writers and philosophers — chiefly during the Ming and Qing dynasties — and that is reflected in thecountry’s rich liturgical history.Currently, an articlerecently published in a 2017 issue of the journal Chinese Archaeology. Ancient Tomb with ‘Blue Monster’ Mural Discovered in China,the archaeologists discovered detailed paintings in a 1,400-year-old tomb inChina and mentioned that “The murals ofthis tomb had diversified motifs and rich connotations, many of which cannot befound in other tombs of the same period”.FoodOut of the major styles of Chinese cooking are Cantonese, which includestir-fried dishes, and Szechuan, a great deal of which relies on use ofpeanuts, sesame paste and ginger and is famous for its spiciness.

According to “Pathways to Asian Civilizations: Tracing the Origins and Spread ofRice and Rice Cultures,” an 2011 article in the journal Rice byDorian Q. Fuller, Rice is not only a chief food source in China but it is alsoa chief element that helps in growing their society. ‘fan’ is a Chinese word for rice , which also means”meal,” and it is a staple food of their diet, so as bean sprouts,cabbage. Tofu is utilized as a main source of protein by the Chinese becausethey do not consume a lot of meat — sporadically pork or chicken — Customs andcelebrationsOne important fact to mention is that, the north and south partsof the country were not culturally divided accidently but there are quite a lotof explanations that lie in geographical, climate-related, social, religious,and political reasons. Spring FestivalThe largest festival — also called the Spring Festival —marks the beginning of the Lunar New Year. It falls between mid of January andmid of February and is celebrated to honor ancestors.

. The holiday is celebratedwith fireworks and parades featuring dancers dressed as dragons.    CultureDifferences in North and South China Broadly speaking, there are relativelypronounced differences in the personalities and mannerisms of Northern andSouthern Chinese. Northerners are quite frank, more outspoken, more gregarious,and conceivably somewhat more quarrelsome and egoistic. On the other hand, Southerners,are more reserved, more circumspect, less direct, and more apt to draw clearerin-group/out-group distinctions.

Social interactions According to Yan Zhitui, there is almost diametricalopposition culturally between these two regions, especially socially. Hefurther states that when southerners receive guests, they do not go out togreet them or salute them, instead they clasp hands when they finally meet upwith one another, but when in the company of those with the same customs, thereis a great deal of affection and warmth. This occurs again when the southernerssay goodbye to one another, not with the easy smiles and casual style of thosein the north, but with tears and emotion showing that the south has moreemphasis on emotion and emotional connections with people. However in the north, despite the more casual attitude andlack of stringent formality, there is more of an emotional distance. On theconclusion, it be supposed that salutes, which are associated to militaryregimes, are used in the more militarily-inclined north.Another important diffrence that emerges in the northernversus southern cultures is the appearance of great civility and refinement. Inthe north where all indications are that citizens are less emotional and a bitmore distant, they do not generally strive to appear wealthy, refined, orsomething they are not. In the south, however, there is a much greater emphasison the projection of refinement.

As Yan Zhitui notes, “In the South, even thepoor tries to concentrate on their external appearance; their clothes andcarriages had to be expensive and smart even if that meant their wives andchildren suffered hunger and cold” whereas in the north, they did preferto have “fine silks and jewels” but they are fine with letting othermarkers of refinement such as horses and servants.  The New Year’s DayOn Chinese New Year’s Eve, the food served as a dinner isone of the most momentous meal throughout the entire year, so it is verycarefully choosen that what food should be served as a reunion dinner. In the northside of thecountry, New Year’s Eve dumplings are utiilized on New Year’s Day. Eatingdumplings is considered to be a sign of prosperity because of the curved shapeof dumplings that resembles traditional gold ingots.On the contrary, southerners prefer to make a cakemade up of glutinous rice, as well as a sweet filling, frequently a soup ofsesame.   The second day of New YearIn the north, a familiar saying is that the first dayof the year to eat dumplings, the next day to eat noodles. The smooth textureof the noodles means a bright year ahead.

In the meantime, the second day of the New Year isalso known as the “Grand Opening Powder” grand feast in the southernCantonese, especially in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, where it can be utilized athome or with friends. Red envelopeIn Mandarin, Red envelopes are recognized as “redenvelopes”. According to Cantonese, it is a gift from senior familymembers to unmarried junior high school students. In the north, the amount ofmoney given is often large. 100 yuan (15 US dollars) is generally the minimumamount, and very close people, such as grandchildren, may receive an amount ofmore than 1,000 yuan (150 US dollars). In the South, the number of red envelopes is usuallysmall, starting around 10 yuan.

However, northerners often give red envelopesonly to their families, while recipients in the south have much wider socialcircles. Etiquette rules should give red envelopes to regular service workerssuch as janitors, cleaners, security guards, hairdressers Wait. As mentionedabove, the boss is also expected to send red envelopes to employees in theSouth.   Traditional danceDuring Chinese New Year, folk dances are usually heldon the streets. Dance of lions and dragons is very common in south China,especially in Hong Kong. Lion dance is performed by two dancers that are hiddenin lion costumes.

More spectacular dragon dance requires a group of multipledancers to manipulate a colorful, undulating dragon body.  ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????