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Climate, Cultural
Differences between North and South China

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China is the world’s
most populated country, having population of around 1.404 billion covering approx.
9,600,000 sq km. China is an ancient, mystifying, striking and beautiful land
which is always tempting to adventurous foreign visitors. The way China is
doing progress, it is implicited that it may become the world’s largest
economic leader in 10-15 years. In this case, it is advantageous to have some
interesting facts about this huge country.

China’s climate

China
has great physical diversity.
The eastern plains and southern coasts of the country consist of fertile
lowlands and foothills and is the location of most of China’s agricultural
output and human population. The southern parts of China consist of hilly,
mountainous terrain. The west and north of the country are dominated by
sunken basins  and
towering massifs.

 

The line that
generally divides China into fairly distinctive northern and southern cultural
zones runs along the Qinling Mountains from Sichuan through southern Shaanxi
province eastward along the Huai River to the Pacific. Due to the summer
monsoons, south is generally warm and wet. This is principally due to the fact
that when the summer monsoons move from southeast to northwest, they deposit
most of their moisture before reaching this line. The North China plain is
relatively arid.

 

Given the size and varied
landscape of the country, there is no specific time in the year i.e weather conditions changes
across the whole land, especially in winter, stem from the cold weather in
Siberia and the Mongolian Plateau, causing a huge temperature differentiation
between south (0 ? and above) and north (well below 0 ?).

However, the summer except for a few remote areas,
the country is almost all high temperature, temperature difference between the
north and south is not huge. The China’s climate is particularly dominated by
dry season and wet monsoon, having considerable differences between winter and
summer temperatures. The northern winds that come from high latitudes in winter
are usually cold and dry. However, in the summer, the south winds that blow in
the low latitudes are warm and humid.

Climate in North
China

China
is a huge country, and has a great deal of climates because of tremendous
differences in latitude, longitude, and altitude, ranging from tropical in
the far south to subarctic in the distant north and alpine in the higher elevations of the Tibetan Plateau.

Provinces included: Heilongjiang, Jilin,
Liaoning, Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia

 

Climate characteristics: Most of the northern parts of China are of temperate
continental climate, except some areas are of plateau climate. Therefore, it is
bitterly cold in winter and hot in summer, with a large temperature difference
between winter and summer and even between day and night. There is scarcity of
rainfall, and the rainy days are mainly in summer.   

For destinations such as Xinjiang (Urumqi) and Inner Mongolia
(Hohhot), summer is dry and sweltering while winter is formidably cold.
Sandstorms sometimes occur in April in North China, especially in the Inner Mongolia
and Beijing parts. 

Tips for travelers to visit North
China: 
 

? Normally, late summer and autumn is best time to visit, with mild
climate and stunning landscape (except Harbin where the annual International
Ice and Snow Festival is held in winter). 

? You may prepare with a gauze mask in case of sandstorms or hazy weather. 

 

Climate in the South China

Provinces included:

The following provinces are included in south region of
China.

Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi,
Fujian, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hong Kong,
Macau, hainan, Taiwan
 

Climate
characteristics: 

Most parts of South China are of
tropical subtropical monsoon climate, with high temperature and ample rainfall
in summer and mild weather and little rainfall in winter. In summer season, the heat and humidity can be unbearable
causing the visitors to feel very uncomfortable. Typhoons are commonly found here
that can bring strong wind and very heavy rain which can last for a few days at
a time to the coastal regions. These are most frequent from July to October.

 

Destinations such as Guangxi (Guilin)
and Guangdong (Guangzhou and Shenzhen) Provinces, the
winter days are short and comparatively comfortable. Hot and humid season is
longer than other parts since April to October as usual. Destinations like
Kunming, Guiyang and Dali are mild throughout the year.

 

Tips for travelers to visit South China:
 

? It is suitable to visit all year
round. 

?The rainy season of most of the parts
runs from May to August, so bring with adequate rain gear, clothes and
shoes. 

? Typhoons frequently occur in the
southeast coast (destinations such as Shanghai, Hangzhou, Fujian, Guangdong)
between July and September, so you may keep my eye on the weather in case
anything unexpected happening to your planned China tour.  

 

 

 

 

 

China’s culture

 

Chinese have long had different self-awareness and
regional stereotypes in South and North China. There seem to be many basic
things, such as geographical environment, history, language, cuisine, traditions,
culture and many other stereotypes that has divided China into two halves. This
condtion is quite known and is sustained therefor 800 years.

 

According to the
World Bank, about 1.4 billion people that live in
China, they represent 56 ethnic minority groups. Out of these groups,  the largest group is the Han Chinese, with about
900 million people. Other groups comprise the Tibetans, the Mongols, the
Manchus, the Naxi, and the Hezhen, having fewer than 2,000 people so its the
smallest group of all. 

Cristina De Rossi,who is an anthropologist at Barnet and South gate
College in London says “Significantly, individuals within communities
create their own culture,”. Culture basically includes religion, style,
language, food, marriage, music, morals and all the other things that are
responsible for making up a criteria of how a group acts and interacts with
eachother.

Religion

According to
the Council on Foreign Relations, the Chinese Communist Party
that set laws of the nation is officially atheist, although it is gradually
becoming more liberal of religions, Recently, there are only five official
religions. Apart from Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism,
other religions are illegal, although the Chinese constitution states that
people have given freedom of religion. The gradual tolerance of religion has
only started to evolve in the past few decades. Almost a quarter of the people
practice Taoism and Confucianism and other traditional religions. Also there
are small numbers of Buddhists, Muslims and Christians. Even though numerous
Protestant and Catholic ministries have been found to be active in the country
since the early 19th century, but they have made little progress in converting
Chinese to these religions.

Language

There are seven major
groups of dialects of the Chinese language, which each have their own
variations, says Mount Holyoke College. Mandarin language is generally spoken
by 71.5 percent of the inhabitants. It is further followed by Wu (8.5 percent),
Yue (also called Cantonese; 5 percent), Xiang (4.8 percent), Min (4.1 percent),
Hakka (3.7 percent) and Gan (2.4 percent). 

 

Jerry Norman, author
of “Chinese Cambridge Language Surveys” (Cambridge
University Press, 1988) says,

 

 “Chinese is quite more like a language
family than a single language made up of a number of regional forms,”

He further wrote;

 

 “The Chinese dialectal complex is in numerous
ways comparable to the Romance language family in Europe. Like for example,
there is certainly as much dissimilarity between the dialects of Peking
Beijing and Chaozhou as there is between Italian and French.” 

 

According to
the Order of the President of the People’s Republic of China, the
official national language of China is P?t?nghuà, a type of Mandarin spoken in
the capital Beijing. Numerous Chinese are also fluent in English. 

 

The arts

Chinese art is
greatly inclined by the country’s rich spiritual and mystical history as many
sculptures and paintings portray spiritual figures of Buddhism, says the Metropolitan Museum of Art,

Many musical instruments are vital to Chinese culture, together
with the flute-like xun and the guqin, which is in the zither family. 

Chinese of the past were
mostly writers and philosophers — chiefly during the Ming and Qing dynasties — and that is reflected in the
country’s rich liturgical history.

Currently, an article
recently published in a 2017 issue of the journal Chinese Archaeology. Ancient Tomb with ‘Blue Monster’ Mural Discovered in China,
the archaeologists discovered detailed paintings in a 1,400-year-old tomb in
China and mentioned that

“The murals of
this tomb had diversified motifs and rich connotations, many of which cannot be
found in other tombs of the same period”.

Food

Out of the major styles of Chinese cooking are Cantonese, which include
stir-fried dishes, and Szechuan, a great deal of which relies on use of
peanuts, sesame paste and ginger and is famous for its spiciness.

According to “Pathways to Asian Civilizations: Tracing the Origins and Spread of
Rice and Rice Cultures,” an 2011 article in the journal Rice by
Dorian Q. Fuller, Rice is not only a chief food source in China but it is also
a chief element that helps in growing their society. ‘fan’ is a Chinese word for rice , which also means
“meal,” and it is a staple food of their diet, so as bean sprouts,
cabbage. Tofu is utilized as a main source of protein by the Chinese because
they do not consume a lot of meat — sporadically pork or chicken —

 

Customs and
celebrations

One important fact to mention is that, the north and south parts
of the country were not culturally divided accidently but there are quite a lot
of explanations that lie in geographical, climate-related, social, religious,
and political reasons.

Spring Festival

The largest festival — also called the Spring Festival —
marks the beginning of the Lunar New Year. It falls between mid of January and
mid of February and is celebrated to honor ancestors.. The holiday is celebrated
with fireworks and parades featuring dancers dressed as dragons.

 

 

 

Culture
Differences in North and South China

Broadly speaking, there are relatively
pronounced differences in the personalities and mannerisms of Northern and
Southern Chinese. Northerners are quite frank, more outspoken, more gregarious,
and conceivably somewhat more quarrelsome and egoistic. On the other hand, Southerners,
are more reserved, more circumspect, less direct, and more apt to draw clearer
in-group/out-group distinctions.

Social interactions

According to Yan Zhitui, there is almost diametrical
opposition culturally between these two regions, especially socially. He
further states that when southerners receive guests, they do not go out to
greet them or salute them, instead they clasp hands when they finally meet up
with one another, but when in the company of those with the same customs, there
is a great deal of affection and warmth. This occurs again when the southerners
say goodbye to one another, not with the easy smiles and casual style of those
in the north, but with tears and emotion showing that the south has more
emphasis on emotion and emotional connections with people.

However in the north, despite the more casual attitude and
lack of stringent formality, there is more of an emotional distance. On the
conclusion, it be supposed that salutes, which are associated to military
regimes, are used in the more militarily-inclined north.

Another important diffrence that emerges in the northern
versus southern cultures is the appearance of great civility and refinement. In
the north where all indications are that citizens are less emotional and a bit
more distant, they do not generally strive to appear wealthy, refined, or
something they are not. In the south, however, there is a much greater emphasis
on the projection of refinement. As Yan Zhitui notes, “In the South, even the
poor tries to concentrate on their external appearance; their clothes and
carriages had to be expensive and smart even if that meant their wives and
children suffered hunger and cold” whereas in the north, they did prefer
to have “fine silks and jewels” but they are fine with letting other
markers of refinement such as horses and servants.

 

The New Year’s Day

On Chinese New Year’s Eve, the food served as a dinner is
one of the most momentous meal throughout the entire year, so it is very
carefully choosen that what food should be served as a reunion dinner. In the northside of the
country, New Year’s Eve dumplings are utiilized on New Year’s Day. Eating
dumplings is considered to be a sign of prosperity because of the curved shape
of dumplings that resembles traditional gold ingots.

On the contrary, southerners prefer to make a cake
made up of glutinous rice, as well as a sweet filling, frequently a soup of
sesame.

 

 

The second day of New Year

In the north, a familiar saying is that the first day
of the year to eat dumplings, the next day to eat noodles. The smooth texture
of the noodles means a bright year ahead.

In the meantime, the second day of the New Year is
also known as the “Grand Opening Powder” grand feast in the southern
Cantonese, especially in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, where it can be utilized at
home or with friends.

Red envelope

In Mandarin, Red envelopes are recognized as “red
envelopes”. According to Cantonese, it is a gift from senior family
members to unmarried junior high school students. In the north, the amount of
money given is often large. 100 yuan (15 US dollars) is generally the minimum
amount, and very close people, such as grandchildren, may receive an amount of
more than 1,000 yuan (150 US dollars).

 

In the South, the number of red envelopes is usually
small, starting around 10 yuan. However, northerners often give red envelopes
only to their families, while recipients in the south have much wider social
circles. Etiquette rules should give red envelopes to regular service workers
such as janitors, cleaners, security guards, hairdressers Wait. As mentioned
above, the boss is also expected to send red envelopes to employees in the
South.

 

 

 

Traditional dance

During Chinese New Year, folk dances are usually held
on the streets. Dance of lions and dragons is very common in south China,
especially in Hong Kong. Lion dance is performed by two dancers that are hidden
in lion costumes. More spectacular dragon dance requires a group of multiple
dancers to manipulate a colorful, undulating dragon body.

 

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