CHAPTER 2 :LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 ABOUT OIL PALM2.1.
1 ELAEISGUINEENSIS AND ITS SHOOTElaeis Guineensis, known as African oil palm or Guinea oil palm is a single-stemmedpalm tree and could be easily spotted in tropical countries. This tree canreach up to 20 to 30 metres height and its cylindrical stem can grow up to 75centimetres. Elaeis Guineensis is anon-branched tree, unlike any other tropical plant. The fronds of the Elaeis Guineensis is usually consists of40 to 60 green leaves with thorny leave stem that can possibly grow up to 8metres long.
As it was originated in Africa, thus it was named African oilpalm. The habitat of Elaeis Guineensisis in open forest with moist and sandy soils, and surprisingly this tree couldoften be found along the edges of rivers. Usually, this tree is vastly spreadin tropical west and central Africa to Sierra Leone, Uganda and Kenya, Angola,Mozambique, Bismarck Archipelago and Cameroon, Costa Rica, Fiji, Guinea, Kenya,Ivory Coast, Sri Lanka and also the Southeast Asia in Malaysia, Indonesia andthroughout other tropics region (Fern, 2014). Elaeis Guineensis was planted for itsoil-rich fruits which are a major source of plant oil on a world scale. Theshoot of Elaeis Guineensis, or theheart of palm is the inner core part of ElaeisGuineensis, and it is the growing bud of the tree.
The heart of palm isusually eaten as vegetable. The heart of palm is harvested by cutting down thepalm tree and the bark is removed until the centre core is revealed. A wellharvested heart of palm is white in colour with tender crisp texture (Zeldes, 2010).2.1.
2 BENEFITS OF ELAEIS GUINEENSISElaeis Guineensis is being commercially planted for its high economical profits. Thebearings commenced from Elaeis Guineensishave a special characteristic, which enables the fruits and kernels to sustainoil, widely known as palm oil and palm kernel oil which could be used ascooking oil, making margarine, vegetable ghee, bakery fats and ice creams. Theproduction ratio between palm oil and palm kernel oil is 10:1, for every 10tonnes of palm oil, 1 tonne of palm kernel oil can be harvested.
Palm oil ispopular among consumers as it is way cheaper than many other vegetable oils,plus its 10% linoleic acid content makes palm oil an excellent source ofcarotene for consumers. Palm kernel oil has similar composition and propertiesas coconut oil, and it is often being mixed with coconut oil for productdevelopment purpose. Nowadays, Malaysia had been one of the world’s largest palmoil exporters, and is currently held 39% of world palm oil production and 44%of world exports (Vaile, E., 2016).
Other edible parts of Elaeis Guineensis are the heart-of-palm,or known as the shoot itself, where people will consumes the soft part of the straight,acute bud as vegetables. However, consuming the shoot will eventually lead tothe death of the tree. Usually, the shoot is consumed when an oil palm tree hadreached its maximum growth, where it would be difficult for farmers to harvestthe oil palm fruits and the tree will be cut down and replant with a new youngtree. The shoot is claimed to be rich in protein, where a cup of 146g cannedpalm shoot or heart of palm contain 4g proteins, 7g total carbohydrates, 0mgcholesterol, 622mg sodium and 4g of dietary fibre. The pros of the intake ofheart of palm are that this food is an excellent source of protein, Riboflavin,Potassium, Vitamin C, Folate, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Zinc,Copper and Manganese. The only con is the food contain high amount of Sodium(Self Nutrition Data, 18 November 2016). Elaeis Guineensis also has beneficial values in medicinal field.
The heart or shootcan be used to treat gonorrhoea, menorrhagia and perinatal abdominal pain. Theoil palm heart also considered as laxative and has anti-emetic properties andis diuretic. Anti-emetic means that the shoot can be used to treat vomiting andnausea. The leaf sap is said to have the ability to cure skin affection. Theextracted oil from its pulp has emollient properties, or has the ability tosoften and soothing especially to the skin and is widely used as ointments(Office of Dietary Supplement, 18 November 2016).
The palm oil obtained couldalso be used in developing other products than just being used as cooking oil.For example, residue from palm oil manufacturing could be used to manufacture soap,detergents, candles, lubricating greases and in cosmetic products. The palmkernel oil is used to make high quality soap and grease.
2.2 ABOUT FLOUR2.2.1 FLOURBy definition, flour is a fine grindedpowder form of grain which is beyond the stage of meal, which is coarse and anyunwanted matter is eliminated by sifting, soft and silky (Palmatier, 2000). The most popular flour used worldwideis wheat flour, which is the main ingredient to make breads and pastries. Theword flour is originated from the word “flower” as it is derive from Old Frenchfluer or flour, means “blossom” or “the finest” since flour is obtained afterthe coarse and foreign materials is removed during the milling process (Palmatier, 2000) 2.2.2 FLOUR MAKINGAs stated before, flour is made fromeither wheat or other starchy plants.
The flour manufacturing process consistsof grading, purifying, grinding and packaging. In wheat flour manufacturingprocess, the wheat will first being inspected and samples of wheat will undergophysical and chemical analysis. The samples should pass various tests, and themost important is the test to identify the protein content of the wheat.
Thesucceeded batch will be kept in silos and will undergo next process.Purification process is the process whereall foreign materials will be eliminated. The wheat will undergo thepurification process again and again until it passes the standard regulation.The first purification device used in this process is known as the separator,where the wheat will passes over a series of metal screens, separating thewheat and large foreign objects such as rocks and leaves. Next, the wheat willgo through the aspirator, which works by sucking up the lighter foreignmaterials and removes it from the wheat. Magnets will be used to remove smallmetal, and an electronic sorting machine is used to remove other foreignobjects which cannot be detected by naked eyes.During pre-grinding phase, thepurified wheat will be washed with warm water and it will be spun to dry withan industrial scale centrifuge.
If the is an excessive moisture left in thewheat, a vacuum dryer will be used to dry all the water. After the wheat isdried, it will be processed in a machine called Entoleter, which spins disksrapidly to hurl the grains against a small metal pins. Next, two large metalrollers known as breaker rolls will crack open the grains, separating theinterior parts of the wheat from the outer bran.
The products will be purifiedthrough vibration. Air is blown through the screen to remove the lighter branpieces which are mixed together with the middling. Lastly, purified middlingare processed into flour by rolling through a pairs of large and smooth metalrollers. The flour is graded according to the finest scale through sifting,separating and regrinding processes again and again. In order to make the flour to be white incolour, small amounts of bleaching agents and oxidizing agents will be added tothe flour right after milling process. The products will also be enriched withvitamins and minerals as required by law, thus enriched flour is produced.