Chapter 21 VocabularyVocabularyDefinitionSignificance/ExamplesIvan IIIAlso known as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or Caesar-equivalent of emperorSignificance: Ivan III made a strong emphasis on new government and military which ended the reign of the mongols in russia by 1480.CossacksPeasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia; particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlementsSignificance: They helped protect Russia by migrating to the places that were newly seized and settling there so invaders would not take the land. Time of TroublesFollowed death of Russian tsar Ivan IV without heir early in the 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613Significance: This led to Russia being attacked by outside forces such as Sweden and Poland but it also ended with the beginning of the Romanov Dynasty.Old BelieversRussians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonizationSignificance: They extended the Russian territory and brought old russian reforms to Southern Russia and Serbia.Peter IAlso known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European modelsSignificance: He built up tsarist and expanded Russia’s Territory. He also enhanced Russia’s military because the wars they had with Sweden weakend there empire. He also made made Russia more similar to western culture than Eastern culture.Catherine the GreatGerman-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantrySignificance: She stopped the Pugachev rebellion and brought more power to the tsars and the central government. She also enhanced philosophy, education, literature, and art.Pugachev RebellionDuring 1770s in reign of Catherine the Great; led by Cossack Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be legitimate tsar; eventually crushed; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafterSignificance: Catherine the Great used the rebelion to give more power to herself and the central government.Partition of PolandDivision of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russia influence in eastern EuropeSignificance: Gave Russia more power and influence in western Europe. Led to the Russians defeating the French in 1812.