Chapter the main objectives to design and implement an


Chapter 7


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Discussion, Conclusion and Scope of Future Work



The design and implementation of an
advanced system to track vehicle conditions and smart navigation tested
successfully as presented in the earlier chapters of the thesis. The objectives
of the present work aims at developing a system that would aid the driver/user
in keeping track the vehicle parameters/conditions such as Fuel level, Engine
temperature and Weather monitoring. The work also in real time monitors the
road and provides detected input if an obstacle is present and also accident
identification and alert the driver/user. The prototype is designed to send an
SOS whenever an accident is detected. The system also providing the security to
the vehicle from intruders from the of vehicle and also security to the
passengers through different verification tests of Finger, Face recognition and
Alcohol detection to the driver before he is ready to drive the vehicle be
restricted if he is drunken alcohol by controlling the Vehicle ignition
control. The following are the main objectives to design and implement an
advanced system to track the vehicle conditions and smart navigation.


For monitoring the following parameters of the vehicle and
intimate the user when the threshold is violated:

·       Fuel Level

·       Engine

To determine the weather conditions of the driving terrain,
that includes the temperature and humidity.

To alert the user about the presence of obstacle/pedestrians
along the driving road.

To identify the occurrence of accident and send emergency
message to pre-defined Mobile Station using GSM Technology.

To provide an advanced security to the vehicle against theft
using Biometrics and safety and security to assist the driver through

·       Fingerprint,

·       Face Recognition

·       Alcohol

It also provides an advanced Head Up Display connectivity and
aids in infotainment on advanced display of Samsung Galaxy Notepad which
readily available with all users which reduces the cost of the system.

The developed
system is implemented and tested successfully by following the methodology as presented


The system is being developed using Raspberry
Pi and Arduino Uno/Arduino AT mega with GSM/GPS and Bluetooth Technology for
data communication connected with different sensors already discussed in detail
in chapter 3, Chapter 4 and chapter 5 and Chapter 6 of Integrated system.



Methodology for objective-1


To monitor the Fuel level of the vehicle using Ultrasonic
sensor and whenever the fuel level falls below the threshold to be intimated to
the driver/user.

To monitor the Engine temperature and weather condition of the driving terrain DHT11 using sensor.



7.2.2 Methodology
for objective-2


Micro switches are mounted
across the periphery of the car, each of them separated by an angle of 45
degree (hence a total of 8 micro switches). These detect the presence of
pedestrians on road as well as occurrence of accident if any.

7.2.3 Methodology
for objective-3


The security against theft/safety and security for the vehicle
is provided using three levels of authentication. They are

The drivers finger print
Verification (Biometric).

The drivers Face Recognition

Alcohol Detection.


7.2.4 Methodology for objective-4



It also provides an advanced Head-Up Display
connectivity and aids in infotainment on advanced display using  Samsung Galaxy Notepad which readily available
with all users that reduces the cost of the system. The developed system is
implemented and tested successfully with the following procedure as presented

Implementation of
Hardware and Software of the System


The prototype system is developed
using Raspberry Pi in conjunction with the Two Arduino AT Mega 2560
Microcontroller. The sensors are incorporated to the Arduino and the data
fetched by the microcontroller is then transmitted to the Raspberry Pi (RPi)
using the Bluetooth module HC-05. The Raspberry Pi processes the fetched values
and then initiates the necessary actions with GSM/GPS Module for data
communication to display all the information on an advanced Head-Up display using
advanced Samsung Galaxy Notepad is a new feature of the system to display the
information of system in real time.    

7.3.1 Algorithm of the proposed work

The following are the algorithm steps for implementing
the hardware of the system with developed software program as follows.

1.     Initialize the sensors and check for various pre-defined parameters.

2.     To turn On the vehicle Ignition the following Authentication needs
to be satisfied:

A Finger Print match

Face Detection

3.     The system checks for presence of Alcohol. If the Driver is found
positive, the Ignition turns off, else the vehicle starts.

4.     After the preliminary authentication, the vehicle conditions are to
be retrieved before the vehicle accelerates. The vehicle conditions such as,
fuel level and the engine temperature are compared against the threshold.

If the fuel is below threshold,
a refuel display alert is shown.

If the temperature is above the
threshold, Engine cooling process is initiated.

5.     Clearing the conditions of Step No. 2 to 4, vehicle movement is

6.     The system constantly monitors the weather conditions and the
details are displayed on the infotainment screen.

7.     The system persistently monitors the presence of Pedestrians along
the path, if found decelerates the vehicle, avoiding accidents.

8.     An accident if detected, the engine is decelerated and a SOS message
is forwarded to pre-defined Mobile Stations.

9.     Steps 3 to 8 are repeatedly and simultaneously carried out whenever
the vehicle is in motion.

The block diagram and experimental
setup and flow chart of the proposed work is shown in figure 7.1,7.2 and 7.3
respectively  which gives complete
process of the system.

Figure 7.1 : The complete Block diagram of Vehicle
Smart Navigation System


      The connection details of all
sensors used for the measurement and monitoring of vehicle conditions
interfaced with Arduino AT mega 2560 microcontroller as shown in figure 7.2.
The second microcontroller board is used to transmit the values of the sensors
to the Raspberry Pi processor through Blue tooth module to display all
information on display of Samsung Galaxy Notepad through GSM/GPS technology  which we already discussed in  previous chapters of the thesis.



Figure 7.2 
: Experimental Setup of the proposed work of Vehicle Smart Navigation



7.3 : Flow chart of the Vehicle smart Navigation system

7.3   Results and Discussion

            The objectives of the present
research work are satisfactorily realized. 
The developed prototype system to track the vehicle conditions and smart
navigation system has been implemented and tested successfully and the results
are presented in below figures of 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6 respectively on the Samsung Galaxy
Tab Used as the advanced display of the Navigation system. The developed system
is working steadily and consistently tested for many times.

1.     The System measures and monitors the important Vehicle conditions/parameters
of Engine temperature, Fuel level of the tank and also determines the weather
conditions of the driving terrain that includes the temperature and humidity outside
of the weather for further control the internal conditions of the vehicle to
control the Air conditioning unit.  Mainly
it monitors the fuel level and engine temperature in real time on the display.

2.     The driver/user is intimated whenever the fuel level falls below the
threshold and the Engine heat level conditions above the normal values to stop
the vehicle movement by giving advanced information to the driver that keeps
the vehicle in good health condition.

system detects and also alert the driver/ user whenever a pedestrian is
detected along the driving road to provide the safety and security to the
passengers by avoiding the accidents..
system also identifies the occurrence of an accident, if occurred.
Immediately it sends an emergency SMS message to pre-defined user numbers,
High way petrol police team people or Emergency Health care Vehicle services
such as 108.

The system also provides advanced
biometric based authentication of Finger print and Face recognition and Alcohol
detection which provides a high security to the vehicle from the theft and safety
to the driver/passengers through vehicle ignition control which cannot be
mimicked easily.


Figure 7.4  : Face recognition results

Alcohol Detection





7.5 :   Display of Alcohol Detection













Figure 7.6 : The
parameters of the Smart Vehicle Navigation System 

                  on the Head-Up display of
Samsung Galaxy Notepad


7.4 Conclusion and Scope of Future work


The developed Proto type system of the hardware and software is
implemented and tested successfully in the first step of the process for the
monitoring of Fuel level, Engine Temperature and Humidity values and also
Weather Monitoring parameters of Temperature and Humidity outside the vehicle
also. In the second step it detects the obstacle/pedestrian and detects the
accident occurrence and send alert messages to provide immediate help to the
passengers of vehicle. In the third step it provides the security to the
vehicle from the theft by intruders and security to the passengers form the
driver not permitting to drive the vehicle by the ignition control of the
vehicle by Finger, Face recognition and alcohol test to the driver. All these
parameters and Navigation system is also successfully implemented as presented above.




In our present work
we have concentrated on monitoring, tracking and ignition control for the
vehicle. This model also assists the driver to drive safely through better
control of the vehicle while ensuring the safety of the passenger and the
driver. This work can also be extended by incorporating new features which will
aid the driver in safe driving.

Apart from face
recognition, finger print authentication and alcohol detection, the model can
be enhanced with some additional features like seat belt control and air bag
control. Using state of the art technologies, seat belt control can be designed
by CAN-based seat belt monitoring
system. The system uses microcontrollers to judge the position of the seat belt
and performs speed governing action accordingly.

In addition to
seat belt reminders, the model can further be enhanced by improving safety
regulations for new vehicles (e.g. by mandating seatbelt reminders for the
driver), exploring the greater use of intelligent transport solutions such as
seat belt reminder systems for all seating positions in vehicles, seat belt
interlock systems and ignition control.

The SRS (supplemental
Restraint System) Airbag System is designed to supplement the seatbelt system
and improve occupant protection in certain type of crashes. Airbags supplement
the seat belt and enhance passenger safety in certain types of collision. For
the SRS Airbag (Driver’s side), a sensor will detect the impact and calculate
the collision intensity and deploy the airbag.

Drowsiness Alert
is another input parameter which can be taken up by employing relevant
technologies to monitor and study the movement of the eyelids and alert the
driver as well as his co passengers and as a last step stop the car to avoid
any accidents.

Vehicles: basically self-driving vehicles which incorporates wireless
communication in V2V and V2I by sending signals and information through a MODEM

Drive assist for differently abled people and also assist
people in change of lane.

Adaptive Cruise control to control the vehicle under unfavourable

Adaptive Headlights

Collision warning