Chapter 1IntroductionBackground”When work begins to overlap withworkers’ personal life this implies a negative effect on productivity”, (Halkos& Bousinakis, 2010). Stress on employees can affect not only their personal lives but also theirprofessional lives. With increasingworkforce diversity people are working in environment where they meet peoplefrom different educational background, culture, religion and so on. So, theremay be conflicting views within organizations. Demand for multiple roles indifferent domains of life, conflicting views among employees, andorganizational culture, are some of the factors for increase in the stresslevel of employees. Positive stress may be motivating factor for employees atworkplace but negative stress can reduce their performance which eventuallyaffects the overall outcomes of organization at large.Dishinger et al.
conducted a study on “The Effects of Stress on Business Employees and ProgramsOffered by Employers to Manage Employee Stress”. They carried out a survey inthe Central Texas area to determine the effects of stress on different areas ofwork performance and the methods used by employers in organization to managestress. In reference to this study we have also conducted a similar survey inKathmandu valley to know about the effects on work performance areas ofemployees and what tools organizations have been using to address stress issuesto improve organizational outcomes. Statement of theProblem We aim to determine the perception ofemployees in Kathmandu valley regarding the stress effects on areas of workperformance and the programs used by their employees to reduce the stresslevel. Significance of theStudy By knowing theperception of employees about impacts of stress in their work areas, this studymay help organizations to plan and implement the programs in order to reducestress at workplace and increase the productivity of employees. This mayfurther, provide information about out of all the methods they have been implementingwhich one has made the significant impact.
Scope of theStudy We have only takenthose methods and areas of work performance which we thought are applied incontext of Kathmandu valley.Our study is conducted among employees residing in Kathmanduvalley only. We have ignored the positive influences of stress in this study.We carried out the survey during fall of 2018 and distributed ourquestionnaires to 50 employees. Review of RelatedLiterature Vijayan, (2017) investigated the impacts ofrelated factors of job stress such as job security, and shift work. They alsoprovided some methods of stress management like counseling, meditation programme,incentives and others. Through the knowledge of various factors related tostress employees and employers can develop strategies to cope up with stress atworkplace.
According to Jahanian, (November, 2012) thereare three types of organizational consequences of stress; functionalconsequences, quitting and attitudinal changes. Absenteeism, leaving theorganization, decreased productivity, accuracy, courtesy are some negativechanges that stress in employees can make.Harrold and Wayland(2002) reported that increasing stress affects morale, productivity,organizational efficiency, absenteeism, and profitability for both individualsand the organization. The problem for businesses today, is to know how todetermine stressful areas in their organizations and how to use constructiveconfrontation methods to reduce stress and improve efficiency. According to the authors, organizations thatmake a positive effort to deal with stress not only help build trust amongtheir employees, but also increase the productivity of their employees and theorganization as a whole. (as cited by Dishinger et.al. on The Effects ofStress on Business Employees and Programs Offered by Employers to ManageEmployee Stress”) Chance, (2014),employment and partnership lawyer at Kingsley Napley, stated that recognition,flexible and well-designed jobs, employee assistance programmes, healthservices, work-life balance, counseling, breaks, performance appraisals, aresome of the guidance for employers to imply in their organizations to reducework stress of employees.
Methods of theStudy Source of DataWe collected thedata through a questionnaire consisting six questions. Basically, there werethree parts of the questionnaire. First part was for the 9 affected areas ofwork performance, including the requirement to mark most affected and least affectedarea. Second part was related to the questions regarding 9 different methodsused by their employers while the third one was for their age group andemployment pattern as defined by their employer. Respondents were asked to markall the options that apply to them. The questionnaire of this study is on theAppendix on last page of report. Sample Selection The respondentsinvolved in this survey were employees working in organizations located inKathmandu Valley. A non-probability,convenience sampling technique was used to collect primary data.
We distributed questionnaires through e-mailto members of the sample. Limitations of the Study Findings of thisreport may not represent the other places beside Kathmandu valley. Thenon-probability convenient sampling in itself may be the cause for samplingerrors. Employees to whom we did not reach may have given some other responses.Further, we have only included the some areas and methods, in reality, theremay be different affected areas and tools used.
Chapter 2Data Presentation and Analysis In this chapter wehave presented the quantitative data og our survey. A total of 50quextionnaires were didtributed via e-mail to respondents, out of which only 38responses are analysed. The response rate of this survey is 76%.
Collected data is presented and described into3 sections as below:i) DemographicProfile, ii) Areasof Job Performance Affected by Stress andiii) ProgramsEmployers Offer Employees to Manage Stress. Demographic ProfileReturned responsesfrom the sample were part-time and full-time employees by their employers. The respondents were also asked to indicatetheir age group; all age ranges were represented in the results, as shown in Figure1. The breakdown consisted of 66%between the ages of 20 and 29, 29% between the ages of 30 and 39,5% between 40and 49, and no respondent fall in age group between 50 and 59.
Areas of JobPerformance Affected by Stress The respondents were given a list of workperformance areas that might be affected by stress and were asked to mark allareas that they think made change on their work performance. Only respondentswho indicated stress negatively affected an area were considered in thesefindings. Of the 9 areas listed, threeareas were identified as having a response rate of more than or equal to50.0%. These areas were as follows: productivity (63.2%), decision makingabilities (50.
0%), and creativity (55.3%). Similarly, Schorr (2001) stated that a significant number of employees’creativity is negatively affected by stress. Falling within the range of a30.0% to 50.0% response rates were job satisfaction (36.8%), accuracy (42.
1%).Harrold and Wayland (2002) established that increasing stress and anxiety arehaving a negative influence on an individual’s organizational efficiency andproductivity. The findings that negatively affect work performance are shown inFigure 2. Area Affected Responses (Percentage) Productivity 63.2 Job Satisfaction 36.8 Absenteeism 28.9 Decision Making Abilities 50.0 Accuracy 42.
1 Creativity 55.3 Courtesy 13.2 Cooperation 16.3 Initiative 23.7 Employees indicatedthe area they believed was most affected by stress and the area they believedwas least affected by stress. Accordingto the results, productivity was thought to be most affected by stress. On the other end of the scale, area least affectedby stress was courtesy. However,Schorr’s (2001) study found that, on the average, individuals experiencingstress are more inclined to be absent or tardy.
Programs EmployersOffer Employees to Manage Stress Question fourlisted 9 programs offered by employers for managing stress. Respondents were asked to indicate whichprograms their companies had implemented to manage stress. The responses for each program are shown inFigure 2 and Table 2. Type of Program Responses (Percentage) Employee Assistance Program 8 Employee Empowerment Program 2 Breaks 50.
0 Financial Counseling 8.3 Stress Management Seminars 33.3 Training Programs 25.5 Alternative Schedules 25 Insurance 22.2 Counseling 28 Breaks received thehighest number of responses (50.0%), whereas, Counseling received the lowest(2.8%).
Although Employee Assistance Program and Financial Counseling can playimportant role to manage stress, a relatively small response rate was given, 8.3%to be exact. Maurer (2002) stated thatit is necessary for companies to design programs that enable employees toassess stressful situations and develop a rational mode of behavior. In contrast to Maurer’s research, only 27.8%of the respondents indicated that Employee Empowerment Programs are beingoffered by their employer. A responserate of 33.3% in the category of Stress Management Seminars/Classes wasobtained. The remainingmethods for managing stress were varied.
Listed in decreasing percentages, they are as follows: Training Programsand Alternative Schedules (25.0%), and Insurance (22.2%). Chapter 3Conclusion and RecommendationConclusionOn the basis of thefindings, several conclusions concerning the effects of stress on employees inKathmandu valley can be drawn. Thefindings of this study indicated stress does negatively affect the workperformance of employees. Productivity and Creativity were indicated as twoareas most affected by work-related stress. Therefore, stress cannot be considered just an individual issue becausereduced lower productivity and creativity have a direct effect on the companyas a whole.
From this study, it can be concluded thatemployers have realized the importance of managing stress in the workplacebecause of the wide variety of programs now offered to manage stress. Of all the programs offered by employers,Breaks are the most frequently offered means for stress management. Because breaks acts as refreshment foremployees, is offered the most, it can be inferred that employers contend thatbreaks are the most effective means for managing stress. Recommendations Based on thefindings and conclusions in this study, the following recommendations aremade: 1. Employers shouldoffer various stress reduction programs to help employees manage stress apartfrom breaks.
Stress may not be prevalent in the workplace only because ofworkload. 2. Employers shouldconduct a survey of the programs they already offer to discover which programsare the most effective for managing their employees’ stress. 3. Employees shouldshare their ideas for managing stress with their employers in order to helptheir employers implement appropriate stress reduction programs.
5. Other factorsshould be examined to learn what the personal and work-related causes andsymptoms of stress are for an individual.