CHAPTER living and life in its fullness. Life is



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you learn something new, the structure of your brain changes”

Jos Walker

is all about living and life in its fullness. Life is lived only if one lives
it happily until the very end of one’s life. For centuries, the brain has fascinated scientists and
philosophers, but until recently they see the brain as something almost incomprehensible
or intangible. However, the brain is beginning to give up its secrets due to
the acceleration of the pace of research. Scientists have learned more about
the brain in the last 10 years throughout the previous century.


The brain is the crown
jewel of the human body and considered as delicate, extremely complex and
largest organ, the center for controlling network for various body function. The organ of three pounds is the set of
intelligence, interpreter of the sense, initiator of the corporal movement and
control and integration of many activities of the body.


Cerebrovascular accident
or stroke, a catastrophic disease is identified as the third leading cause of
death, next only to cancer and cardiovascular diseases. It is a paralyzing disease that poses serious
medical, socioeconomic and rehabilitation problems throughout the world.
India faces an enormous socio-economic burden to meet the costs incurred by a stroke since the population is surviving
through the peak years (55-56) of occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. (Dalal et al. 1997)

 Complications of stroke are the leading cause
of death. Despite reduced morbidity in some developed countries, mortality in
stroke patients is still high worldwide. In the past decades, treatment of
actual stroke has focused on early intervention. However, long-term clinical observations indicate that
post-stroke pneumonia, cardiovascular complications, and vascular embolism are the main reasons for the higher mortality
rate after stroke. (Zhang et al. 2014).


Stroke remains one of the
main causes of death and disability worldwide. The challenges of predicting stroke outcome have been traditionally assessed from a general
point of view, where baseline non-modifiable factors such as age or stroke the severity is considered the most
relevant factors. However, after the onset of the stroke, some specific compilations could
develop, such as hemorrhagic transformations or infections after the stroke,
which leads to a bad result. An early
prediction or identification of these circumstances, based on predictive models
that include clinical information, could be useful for physicians to
individualize and improve stroke care. (Bustamante
et al. 2016).

                Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, surpassed only by heart disease, cancer, and chronic lower respiratory disease.It represents an enormous public health and economic burden, estimates at $53.9 billion for direct and indirect costs in 2010. (Roger et al. 2013).


According to the 2012 American Heart Association, report every year
about 7,95,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke (6,10,000 first
attack and 1,85,000 recurrent); by sex,
approximately 55,000 more women than men have a stroke. On average, every 40
seconds, someone in the United States has a stroke. From 1998 to 2008, the
stroke death rate fell 34.8%, and the actual number of stroke deaths decreased
to 19.4%. However, there is still a greater number of annual strokes related to
population growth and a greater number of older Americans. The ACV for the
first time for African-Americans is almost double that for Caucasians. The
age-adjusted rates for stroke by state report a death rate for every 1.00,000
from 51.5 to 58.1 for so-called “stroke belt” states that includes
the Carolinas, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. The stroke belt has the highest
incidence of stroke compared to other parts of the country projections
by 2030, they suggest that an additional
4 million people will suffer a stroke, a 24.9% increase in prevalence as of
2010. (Heidenreich et al., 2011).


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become the leading cause of mortality in
India. A quarter of all mortality is attributed to CVD. Ischemic heart disease
and stroke are the predominant causes and are responsible for