Chapter 2REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES In this chapter researchers present various local and foreign literature and studies which show an interesting result considered relevant to the study.
To support the study, the review is taken to collect further to the study. RELATED LITERATURE To give sufficient and tangible information to be assumed, the researchers gathered enough both foreign and local which will guide the presentation and conduct of the whole study. LOCAL LITERATURE The accessibility of quality human resources is one of the Philippines’ key advantages, rendering to the Board of Investments.
The people are vastly educated. The learning rate is 94 percent and 70 percent of the population are fluent in English, possibility one of the largest English-speaking countries in the world. Filipinos also have strong customer service alignment and are highly suitable. The Philippines is anywhere from the third to the sixth country in the world with the major English-speaking population. It can’t claim to be natural English speakers as much as Filipinos would like to, but the talent pool can speak, read and write in this language even at a basic level (Hernandez, 2015). The Philippines was known globally as one of the largest English-speaking countries, with the majority of its population having at least some degree of ease in the language. English has always been one of the country’s certified languages and is spoken by more than 14 million Filipinos.
It is the language of commerce and law, as well as the primary medium of instruction in education. Proficiency in the language is also one of the Philippines’ strengths, which has helped enterprise the economy and even made it the top voice subcontracting destination in the world, beating India in 2012. The invasion of foreign learners of English is also on the rise due to the relatively more affordable but quality English as a Second Language (ESL) programs being presented locally (Cabigon, 2015). Ascribing to its rich colonial past, the Philippines has become one of the best non-native speakers of the English language. The existence of western culture is prevalent in the country, from media to the institution of higher education. Schools are supervised by teachers whose medium of instruction is in English as with most communication channels.
Given that language is continuously evolving allowing for several factors like intonation related to language orientation and assimilation, an exclusive Philippine English is developed (Cerera, 2017).For decades, the Philippines have been known as a country that not only outclasses in but also promotes and has mastered the English language. Various disciplines and industries in the country have generously benefited jobs catering to national and international businesses that largely depend on communications, whether in oral or written form (MC, 2015). The English language is primary in its importance as to the acquisition of education not only because this is a universal language but because this is used in almost all types of teaching and in national and international examinations. Although we in the Philippines distinguish the need to establish the national language, Filipino, English has endured an absolutely popular language in our country (Martin, 2008).
A knowledge that may lead other educators like Lourdes Villanueva (2007) to say that learning to speak and write in English in this stage of globalization is necessary especially if we would want to strive in the knowledge-based world. But in the age of globalization, Filipinos also have to be practical and see the advantages of improving the English proficiency. Knowledge is an influence, and English is still the lingua franca of the Information Age.
The people are missing out on a mountain of vital information when they lack the requisite language proficiency (Pamintuan, 2007). Foreign Literature Proficiency in English is a critical factor in a successful modern society. English is the third most pronounced and most widely taught language on the planet. Generally used in over 100 countries by more than 300 million people as a first language and by over 600 million as a second language, English is a “global language,” the “lingua franca of the modern era.” English skills are essential for any country to fully benefit from global commerce; access the latest science, technology, and invention; and exert impact in the world. Over 20 percent of manufacture literature is in English, followed by around 10 percent in Mandarin and German correspondingly.
The United States, incorporation with other Anglophone countries, should do more to advance the use of English abroad, particularly in parts of the world where English proficiency is not currently strong and in strategic geographies such as the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia (Runde, 2017). The new academic year will originate soon for primary and secondary schools. The general election is also nearby the corner. School-going children number almost 4.7 million while their parents are an important vote bank. Wave 2 of the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025 (MEB) states that as far as the English language is troubled, an approach to heighten its proficiency is required. Thus, as stated by the Economic Council and led by the prime minister in 2016, two radical programmes were planned for, successfully piloted and progressively implemented: The Highly Immersive Programme (HIP) and the Dual Language Programme (DLP). There are 1,593 schools which had executed DLP by the end of 2017.
We are told that HIP will be fully functioning in all schools in 2018. However, DLP is facing a hiccough as an on-going legal suit by some parties of a Tamil school against the education ministry is hampering its progress. One legal suit should not threaten the aspirations of the majority of parents who have high hopes for the future of their children.
Parents do not have the incomes to send their children to private or international schools where fees are excessive, simply to enjoy more experience with the English language (Rahim, 2017).English language proficiency in Taiwan has been reduced from “intermediate” to “low” in the English First’s (EF) 2017 Global English Proficiency Index. The country was classified 40th overall out of the 80 countries looked at.
This should come as a shock to many given the dominance of English schools around Taiwan and the focus that many people give to the learning of English. Almost totally kids study English in Taiwan, many for a boundless number of years, and this has been the case for a long time. Apparent wisdom among most progressive thinking Taiwanese parents is that English language skills will offer their kids the opportunity to study abroad, to work for international corporations, and therefore to earn extra money in the long run. As salaries continue to flatline in Taiwan, this is unquestionably true (Spencer, 2017).Better mastery of the English language is really needed in North Africa so as to meet many of the region’s critical challenges. Current global studies show that English language proficiency is still covering in this region. According to the latest edition of the English Proficiency Index, put out by the Swiss-based organization, Education First, English language proficiency in the North African countries of Morocco, Algeria, Libya and Egypt ranks at levels changing only between ‘low’ and ‘very low’ levels.
Libya, in fact, takes the lowest rank among the 54 nations assessed in the survey (Romdhani, 2012).New government strategies for reform of the country’s university admissions examination system wanting students to pass a new standardized English test in 2020 have sparked strong but mixed reactions among higher education institutions, including over the use of confidentially run tests. At the university entrance examination unit at the department of education, the new tests including speaking and writing skills are aimed at producing students who can communicate fluently in English. Japan needs university students who have a global outlook and English proficiency is an important support in this respect. The ministry declared that, as part of the reform of the national admissions entrance exam system publicized in June, private test companies with experience in analyzing oral and written skills could take over the testing, disagreeing that many students already sit privately run English assessment tests. The government is planning to phase this in, originally using a hybrid system of students sitting a privately run speaking and writing test, and then a month or two later sitting the new national entrance exam, which will comprise a candidate’s reading and listening abilities.
Takashi Inoguchi stated the stark reality is that Japanese English proficiency among university students is of extremely poor quality. He was the president of the University of Niigata Prefecture, who has also taught at the University of Tokyo. The planned new test, if aimed at the selection of the most talented students, will be an invaluable opportunity to make our universities internationally competitive (Kakuchi, 2017).RELATED STUDIES This chapter presents the summary of related studies of local and foreign researchers which have shown an interesting result considered relevant to the research.
The review is taken to further and lend support as a provision to the study.Local StudiesThis revision used descriptive correlation to define the relationship between the English language proficiency and academic performance in Science, Mathematics, and English of the 216 Grade 8 students of Philippine Science High School in Northern Luzon – Ilocos Region Campus, Cordillera Autonomous Region, and Cagayan Valley Campus. Frequency distribution and Pearson’s correlation were the statistical tools used to give the data. Findings reveal that popular of the Grade 8 students of the Philippine Science High School in Northern Luzon have English language proficiency belonging to the satisfactory level. Also, common of the students have academic performance in Science and Mathematics belonging to the very good level while the good level in English. Results further expose that there is a significant relationship between the students’ English language proficiency and their academic performance in each of the subjects (Racca and Lasaten, 2016).Graduating college students, mostly those taking up business or education courses must take note of the recent study that revealed their English language proficiency at only the level of basic working proficiency. This certain level of proficiency indicates that “the person hardly understands native English speakers, or speakers of English via international meetings, or could they sustain fluency and accuracy, plus discuss topics of general interest using non-elaborate structures.
“The study showed by HA Cervantes Knowledge Systems, Inc., the Philippine-based firm which administers the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) took sample quantities of graduating students for the year 2001-2002 from selected educational institutions in Metro Manila. Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) is a global average of English proficiency measurement developed by the Educational Testing (ETS) located in Princeton, New Jersey, USA. It reveals how the English proficiency of the examinee views against the international benchmark, specifically among business trade community (Macasinag, 2011).According to the study of Robelle Millie Ann B.
Racca and Ronald Cany S. Lasaten of the year 2016, Language proficiency is significant to academic performance. A person who does not identify English, for instance, may not have access to the world’s known precise and technological discoveries that are predominantly written in English.
This means that students need to be proficient in English for a better grasp of knowledge in Technology, Science, and Mathematics. According to the study of Tongco, as cited by Charita Lasala, that the difficulties in oral communication endure posing a challenge to language teachers and that over the past few years, educators and language specialists have investigated for ways to make language teaching relevant and effective. Freeman believes that communicative competence will be improved if the students are made to feel that they are working on communicative skills, practicing some functions within a social context, not just accumulating knowledge of vocabulary and sentence level structures. Communication is dynamic in all areas of one’s life. It is used to encourage, influence relationships, inform and share and uncover information (Lasala, 2013).In the study of Nneka Marie C. Solis, students learning English as a second language was studied to find how their awareness of teachers’ level of commitment to teaching them English related with their own motivation to study English.
A questionnaire survey was controlled to the learners at three different levels of proficiency to also identify the relationship between the levels of study and the learners’ perception of the teacher as a factor associating with the learners’ motivation. The results showed that there is a positive correlation between the learners’ enthusiasm and their perception of their teachers’ commitment to teaching, though there are some differences among the three levels. These outcomes support the general claim that language teachers are one of the most important factors influencing learners’ motivation, but the learners’ level of proficiency may need to be taken into consideration for a further discussion regarding the validity of a certain teaching strategy to motivate second language learners. Foreign StudiesRegardless of the fact that English is vital that Thai students study English for years, only limited success in learning English has been attained in Thailand. Teachers and educators of second or foreign language have commonly protested about the unacceptable language proficiency of second or foreign language learners, which has led second or foreign language researchers to try to determine the sources of the problem and potential improvements. Much effort has been devoted to investigating the most appropriate and proficient teaching and learning of English. Many studies of second language gaining and learning have indicated that the most significant factor in second language acquisition is language learning strategy use (Chamot, 2004, Ellis, 2008, Garder, 2007) According to Hashemi and Abbasi (2013), the more friendly and casual the language classroom environment, the less it is likely to be anxiety provoking. They state that “formal language classroom setting is a major source of stress and anxiety because of its demand to be more accurate and clearer in using the target language”.
Despite the obvious widespread perception that English is a global language, relatively little systematic information has been gathered on its effect on educational policies and practices in educational systems around the world. The purpose of this study is to discover the impact of English on educational policies and practices in countries in the Asia-Pacific region, mostly Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. These countries were chosen because they signify a range of contrasting characteristics and structures, from developed to developing, ex-colonial to independent, large to small, and culturally assorted to culturally cohesive. The case study methodology revealed a variety of details about each county, which offer a sight at the educational policy realities of the prevalent role of English internationally (Nunan, 2014)The revision of Bekdas (2015) is aimed to discover via a segmentation method the assembly among reading and listening sub-dimensions of an English language skill and certain background factors allied to secondary and tertiary placement consideration. English was observed as the common linguistic all over the world. It is used as the phonological to lead into politics, economy, tourism, and education in addition to any further fields.
By way of the need to communicate in English increases, teaching English as per a foreign language and testing of English developed more significant in Turkey as well as worldwide, and methodologies for the growth of proficiency in English has previously become a leading research area (Bekdas, 2015). Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and StudiesAll the local and foreign literature, as well as the studies, gives the researchers additional information, details, and ideas about the proficiency of students who are in the different level.The literature According to Hernandez (2015) and Cabigon (2015) is related to the study in the sense that Philippines is one of the largest English- speaking countries in the world. The learning rate is 94 percent and 70 percent of the population are fluent in English. Filipinos also have a strong customer service alignment and are highly suitable. English has always been one of the country’s certified languages and spoken by more than 14 million Filipinos. It is the language of commerce and law, and also it is the language use in teaching.
Further the study of Runde (2017) is really relevant to this study because it talks about how important English proficiency is. “English is a global language” the “lingua franca” of the modern era. English skills are necessary for any country to fully benefit from global commerce; assess the latest science, technology and intervention. The local studies from Racca and Lasaten (2016), Macasinag (2011), Lasala (2013), Solis (2010), is related to the study because it discussed the academic performance of the secondary and tertiary students. The most further reveal that there has a significance relationship between the students’ English language skills in each of their other subjects. It will also improve if the students are made to feel that they are working on communicative skills, such asa in how to construct a sentence.
And also the study to find how their awareness of teachers’ level of commitment to teaching them English. While the foreign studies from Chamot (2004), Ellis (2008), Garder (2007), Hashemi (2013) Nunam (2014) and Bekdas (2015), it tells that the students in other country that they learn English for years, and only limited success in learning English was been attained. They state that formal language classroom was the major source of stress and anxiety.
It discusses the impact of English on educational policies in countries because they signify the range of contrasting characteristics and structures. By way of the necessities to communicate in English increases teaching English developed more significant in the worldwide. Theoretical Framework Many theories had contributed towards the language ability of Social Work students in communicative competence, yet the best theory relates to this study was the Basic Learning Theory by Robert Malcolm Ward Dixon, that provides a new and fundamental characterization of the nature of human languages and a comprehensive guide to their description and analysis. It is generally used in grammatical description of languages and in linguistic typology.
The language acquisition is the way by which people acquire the capability to perceive and comprehend language, and also in producing words and sentences to communicate. Additional is the theory of Robert M. Gagne, which is the condition of learning. Based on his definition of learning, learning is the mechanism by which an individual becomes a competently functioning member of society. Conceptual framework of the study The conceptual framework of the study shows the correlation between the dependent and independent variable. It explains the causes and effects of the contributory factor why there are some students who not yet fluent or not smart in using English as a means of communication.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the Study