CHAPTER a biotic component of the origin of the

CHAPTERIIBASIC THEORYOF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM2.1 Theoretical Basis2.

1.1Environmental TheoryLiving beings with their non-living environments interact closely withone another and influence each other and form a system in nature. The livingthing in this case is a biotic component of the origin of the word”bi” means life. The nonliving environment is called the abioticcomponent with the origin of the words “a” and “bi” meaningnon-living.

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In the system there are two important aspects of energy flow(energy flow) and cycle of material or also called mineral cycle or cycle ofmineral or material cycle beside existence of information system. The flow ofenergy can be seen in food structure, biotic diversity and material cycle (ieexchange of materials between living and non-living parts). These systems arecalled ecosystems or in other words biotic and abiotic components interact toform ecosystems. According to the Environmental Law (UULH, 1982) the ecosystem is acomplete unified order between all elements of the environment that affect eachother. Living things are made up of plants, animals, and humans, while theenvironment is everything that is outside the individual. According to UULH in1982 that the environment is the unity of space with all objects, power,circumstances and living things including human beings and their behavior thataffect the viability of life and the welfare of human beings and other livingbeings. 2.

1.2 Terrestrial Ecosystem TheoryTerrestrial ecosystems are ecosystems (ie interactions between livingthings and their environment) that are in the land area. So that theterrestrial ecosystem is the life of living creatures and the environment thatexist in the land area. This terrestrial ecosystem covers a very large area andwe often refer to as biomes. The terrestrial ecosystem or biome is stronglyinfluenced by certain things, namely climate. While the climate itself is alsostrongly influenced by several things. Ie geographical location (including thealtitude of a place against the sea surface), and also astronomical location(which includes latitude or longitude). When talking about biomes, we know that the biome is composed of severalkinds.

Bioma names we often hear, even similar to the name of the forest. Someof the biomes are derived from vegetation or trees dominant in the biome. Severaltypes of biomes that have names adapted to dominant plant vegetation aredeciduous biomes, savanna biomes, tundra biomes, desert biomes, toma biomes,tropical rainforests, and grasslands.

Each of these biomes will be discussedone by one because it is a terrestrial ecosystem. 2.1.3 Terrestrial Ecosystem DamageMajor problem in Indonesia is forest destruction.

Starting from illegallogging, deforestation, until recently happened that the burning of forestcauses the destruction of the forest. If the destruction of the forest always continue,it will lead to reduced forest areas in Indonesia resulting in ecosysteminstability. To overcome this forest destruction, there are several solutionsthat can be done. The solution for the short term is of course the law enforcement thatmust be done. This is very important to prevent illegal logging activities, andanything else. Development activities undertaken need to pay attention to thelocal environment. Replanting of degraded forest forests is a highlyrecommended thing to do.

 The soil can also be contaminated with materials that can damage thesoil quality. Environmental problems Usually this happens due to excessivemining extraction, waste disposal is difficult to decipher, and many others. Toovercome this problem, it is necessary to conduct the conservation of land andforest through land use, regulations on selective logging of Indonesia,reforestation, and waste management in order to decompose properly. Activities such as beach sand, coral, and mangrove forests areresponsible for abrasion, which will be linked to sea and coastal damage. Ofcourse if left continuously, the conservation of the sea and coast in Indonesiais decreasing. Moreover, most of Indonesia’s territory is the ocean.