CHAPTER a biotic component of the origin of the



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2.1 Theoretical Basis

Environmental Theory

Living beings with their non-living environments interact closely with
one another and influence each other and form a system in nature. The living
thing in this case is a biotic component of the origin of the word
“bi” means life. The nonliving environment is called the abiotic
component with the origin of the words “a” and “bi” meaning
non-living. In the system there are two important aspects of energy flow
(energy flow) and cycle of material or also called mineral cycle or cycle of
mineral or material cycle beside existence of information system. The flow of
energy can be seen in food structure, biotic diversity and material cycle (ie
exchange of materials between living and non-living parts). These systems are
called ecosystems or in other words biotic and abiotic components interact to
form ecosystems.


According to the Environmental Law (UULH, 1982) the ecosystem is a
complete unified order between all elements of the environment that affect each
other. Living things are made up of plants, animals, and humans, while the
environment is everything that is outside the individual. According to UULH in
1982 that the environment is the unity of space with all objects, power,
circumstances and living things including human beings and their behavior that
affect the viability of life and the welfare of human beings and other living


2.1.2 Terrestrial Ecosystem Theory

Terrestrial ecosystems are ecosystems (ie interactions between living
things and their environment) that are in the land area. So that the
terrestrial ecosystem is the life of living creatures and the environment that
exist in the land area. This terrestrial ecosystem covers a very large area and
we often refer to as biomes. The terrestrial ecosystem or biome is strongly
influenced by certain things, namely climate. While the climate itself is also
strongly influenced by several things. Ie geographical location (including the
altitude of a place against the sea surface), and also astronomical location
(which includes latitude or longitude).


When talking about biomes, we know that the biome is composed of several
kinds. Bioma names we often hear, even similar to the name of the forest. Some
of the biomes are derived from vegetation or trees dominant in the biome. Several
types of biomes that have names adapted to dominant plant vegetation are
deciduous biomes, savanna biomes, tundra biomes, desert biomes, toma biomes,
tropical rainforests, and grasslands. Each of these biomes will be discussed
one by one because it is a terrestrial ecosystem.


2.1.3 Terrestrial Ecosystem Damage

Major problem in Indonesia is forest destruction. Starting from illegal
logging, deforestation, until recently happened that the burning of forest
causes the destruction of the forest. If the destruction of the forest always continue,
it will lead to reduced forest areas in Indonesia resulting in ecosystem
instability. To overcome this forest destruction, there are several solutions
that can be done.


The solution for the short term is of course the law enforcement that
must be done. This is very important to prevent illegal logging activities, and
anything else. Development activities undertaken need to pay attention to the
local environment. Replanting of degraded forest forests is a highly
recommended thing to do.


The soil can also be contaminated with materials that can damage the
soil quality. Environmental problems Usually this happens due to excessive
mining extraction, waste disposal is difficult to decipher, and many others. To
overcome this problem, it is necessary to conduct the conservation of land and
forest through land use, regulations on selective logging of Indonesia,
reforestation, and waste management in order to decompose properly.


Activities such as beach sand, coral, and mangrove forests are
responsible for abrasion, which will be linked to sea and coastal damage. Of
course if left continuously, the conservation of the sea and coast in Indonesia
is decreasing. Moreover, most of Indonesia’s territory is the ocean.