CHAPTER 2THEORETICALFRAMEWORK 1. DigitalLiteracyFirstly,we should synchronize the definition of literacy the writer use in this paper.Literacy here is the same with reading and writing skills that are able to betrain, to be taught, and to be learned in school or any other places. Yet,literacy is an everywhere situated and is not separable with practices. (Pahl& Rowsell, 2005, p. 3). For example, if one goes to the bank and about tosigning a bank check, and the person filling the form of the check. Whilefilling the check, that person is doing what is called literacy practices.
Thenwe could see here ‘filling the check’ is not merely caused by the ability towrite, no. ‘Filling the check’ here what we call a social practice because itis related to something we do in real life, and ‘banking’ is the correctdefinition of the social practice of the example. Furthermore, we could see theimportance of literacy studies as a social practice because literacy now hasadvanced as a life-skill in any cultural activity (Dewayanti &Retnaningdyah, 2017, p. 10).
Surefire,reading and writing are still very much at the heart of digital literacy.Nevertheless, given the new and ever-changing ways we use technology to receiveand communicate information, digital literacy also encompasses a broader rangeof skills—everything from reading on a Kindle to gauging the validity of a websiteor creating and sharing YouTube videos. Digital literacy is the set of skillsrequired for full participation in a net of society (Colin & Michele,2008). Digital Literacy includes knowledge, skills, and behaviors involving theeffective use of digital devices such as smartphones, tablets, laptops anddesktop PCs for purposes of communication, expression, collaboration andadvocacy.
While digital literacy initially focused on digital skills andstand-alone computers, the focus has shifted from stand-alone to networkdevices including the Internet and social media. Paul Gilster simplified theterm digital literacy in his 1997 book Digital Literacy. Gilster (1998) describeddigital literacy as the usage and comprehension of information in the digitalage. He also emphasized the importance of digital technologies as an”essential life skill.”Digitalliteracy has a big difference from computer literacy and digital skills.Computer literacy refers to knowledge and skills in using traditionalcomputers, such as desktop PCs and laptops. Computer literacy focuses only onpractical skills in using software application packages. Furthermore, digitalskills is a more contemporary term and are limited to practical abilities inusing digital devices, such as laptops and smartphones.
Moreover, digitalliteracy is the marrying of the two terms digital and literacy. However, it ismuch more than a combination of the two terms. Digital information is asymbolic representation of data, represented by number zero and one, and literacyrefers to the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently, and thinkcritically about the written word.
Adigitally literate individual will possess a range of digital skills, knowledgeof the basic principles of computing devices, and skills in using computernetworks. The individual has the ability to engage in online communities andsocial networks while following to behavioral protocols. The individual is ableto find, capture, and evaluate information. Digital literacy requires theindividual to understand the societal issues raised by digital technologies andpossess critical thinking skills. These skills can be possessed through digitalexperiences that pushes individuals to think in a variety of ways through amultitude of media platforms. The evolution of digital media has quicklyintegrated into literacy.Despiteof the easiness the digital literacy could bring to our life; digital literacydoes not replace traditional forms of literacy.
Digital literacy does not takeover the traditional literacy, in fact, digital literacy builds upon thefoundation of traditional forms of literacy (Jenkins, 2009). Furthermore, digitalliteracy allows individuals to communicate and learn in through a plethora ofways. Different kinds of skills ranging from social to critical thinking enableindividuals to interpret the meanings of digital devices.Digitalliteracy has positive effects on skills important for successful learning also.
Students can access information more easily, as a growing amount of data isavailable in digital repositories that are much easier to access than traditional,paper-based resources for learning. Furthermore, UNESCO (2011) stated that managinginformation is a digital literacy component that students acquire and use intheir private lives when joining online communities and keeping up with thediverse networks they are a part of integrating and evaluating information, onthe other hand, are skills that have to be taught in the classroom, with theteacher acting as an expert in evaluating information, showing students thedifferences between reliable and useless digital resources.Thereare so many ways in applying the digital literacy into language classroom.
Oneof the way to implement this is by using project of short movie. In suchproject, the students are able to express their understanding of language andits culture by using act and role-playing in the short movie. Moreover, the useof digital literacy means that the students are able to use modes that areavailable inside the digital literacy.
Only by giving music to certain scenecould give the viewer various feelings toward the scenario. This is what modescould bring from the short movie, which is called multimodal. 2. MultimodalLiteracyMultimodalliteracy means how meaning is represented in different modes (Pahl & Rowsell, 2005, p. 27). The modes couldbe in form of visual, linguistic, aural or tactile. Nowadays with theimprovement of the technology students are now able not only read, decode, skimand scan the text, but also they could use the modes such as texts, the fontthey use, editing and rendering images, and so on. From one small amount ofinformation, we can understand the semiotic out of it.
Somany images we use in public communication (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000, p.179). We could see how the faucet is colored red or blue for no reason, thus wecould understand the meaning of the sign, instead of only the color blue andred. Thus, texts and images could have more than one modes. The modes also couldbe related to the tactile or the sense in our body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000,p. 182). One could use braille to understand the words that is written on it.
This means that we could also communicate via sense of touch. We also have notonly in physical appearance, but also has “secondary materiality”. This kind ofmaterial is worked on the area of cultural and semiotic.
For example, onechosen rare diction. He might use rare diction to show that he is high inacademic.Furthermoremultimodal literacy representing meaning through text and image (Pahl &Rowsell, 2005, p. 30).
For example, when students are making project and recorda digital audio-visual, they could use not only the script of the explanationof their project, but also the camera angle, the position of the things, andalso their movement in their recording. Moreover, there are also creativity intextual forms. Children tend to be guided more by other modes such as thevisual, kinesthetic, three-dimensional, and gestural modes.
For example, a drawingof a child when they are asked to draw their close persons, he/she draw onlylines inside a circle. Although the drawing seems not logical, but for him/her,the drawing is meaningful and it could be representing his/her family. 3. Digitalliteracy in EducationWecan use multimodal literacy in school as Ho, Anderson, and Leong (2011, p. 10)also provided in their book, the NLE curriculum framework encourages teacherself-reflection on practice, curriculum content, and practices. With this, too,teacher from various subject could work together in order to develop thestudents’ literacy skill. The teachers also could give the students task whichlinking the offline and online learning by doing the cooperative practice.
Additionally, Abram (2015, p. 2) explains how technology is helpful in order tohelp the students’ literacy skills. Technology could be used as a primary toolin computational purposes and to access social networking sites. Educationcould gather the big opportunity in using technology. The blended learningstrategy could be used in online instruction and yet the approach centers is onthe content rather than teaching practice. 4. LanguageTestingTestingis a technique to obtain information (Hopkins and Stanley, 1981). Most languagetests measure one’s ability to perform language, that is, to speak, write,read, or listen to a subset of language.
According to Mayo (1980), someimportant reasons tests are administered in today’s schools are to providediagnostic information about individuals and group performance, assess thelearning progress of individuals and groups, predict future academicperformance, and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Atthe end of a semester, teachers often give students an achievement test. Accordingto Tinambunan (1988, p. 27), an achievement test should measure clearly definedlearning outcomes that are in harmony with the instructional objectives.
The testthat can measure the intended learning outcome must have a good quality. Bachman(2003, p. 18) states that in developing language tests, we must take into accountconsiderations and follow procedures that are characteristic of tests and measurementin the social sciences. Teachers can have a good test by developing it throughproper stages.Accordingto Sulistyo (2002, p. 42-48), test development is a thorough and systematicprocedure to follow in making a set of test. There are consecutive standard proceduresthat a test developer needs to follow in order to develop a good test.
It startswith the formulation of the test objectives. Then, competences to be measured arederived from the competence standards and basic competences. The next step is theconstruction of blueprints. Then, the blueprints need to be reviewed. The nextstep is item writing.
The items already written are then assembled into a setof test. When the test items are arranged in the form of a test consisting ofsub tests or test items, then it comes to the process of expert review.Following this stage, there are two other possible steps that may be taken:putting the assembled items in the item bank in which the tests are kept beforeit is used, or using the test as planned. After that, the test can beadministered. Then there comes another important process called test analysis.The outcome of the test analysis reflects the quality of the test. Theresults of language tests are most often reported as numbers or scores, and itis these scores, ultimately, that test users will make use of (Bachman andPalmer, 1996, p.
193). The scoring methods used to arrive at scores must bedecided earlier before he test is held. Alderson, Clapham, and Wall (1995, p.148) state: Decisions need to be taken on whether simply to add marks up toarrive at a total score for the test, or whether to give some items moreimportance than others. Testers need to decide which candidates can beconsidered to have performed adequately, and thus to have passed the test andwhich have failed.
Eachitem in a test must be well-constructed based on the type of the items. Formultiple-choice question type, the criteria are every item must use clear andsimple language, measure only one formulated problem, use proper grammar and,avoid any form that might provide clues for the test takers (Gronlund andWaugh, 2009:93-106).