Case that the source and the type of data

Case Study 1

Mastering Massive Databases at MasterCard

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MasterCard International’s  operation is best known for approving,
clearing and settling transactions the moment a purchaser’s card is swiped. A
large number of times each day, that sets of electronic handshaking and
confirmation as the payment executes crosswise over 25,000 members of banks and
financial foundations.. But it’s how that data is processed when it achieves
MasterCard’s massive information distribution center that enables the credit-to
card giant and its bank customers make 
more powerful business choices.

MasterCard has changed over the 50 TB
of value-based and money related information into a business intelligence
machine use by banks and MasterCard workers. The organization runs a
combinations  of homegrown and off-the-rack
investigation apparatuses – and utilizes examiners – to recognize purchasing
patterns, Mastercard misrepresentation and other valuable data living in its
information distribution center. The organization can correspond and dissect
exchanges to decide a customer’s advantages or distinguish irregularities that
propose a card has been stolen, for example..


and medium businesses are just as entitled to data intelligence as established
enterprises, and that’s a fact that can be traced back to the beginning of
business as such. There are four steps that MasterCard can take to promote
greater use of its BU and reporting tools by its clients.

1) Check the Data at the source:

Data usually does not come from one source and in one format alone. Make sure
that the source and the type of data that it sends matches. Also, do a basic
validation right here.

Let us say a student’s details are
sent from a source for subsequent processing and storage. Make sure that the
details are correct, right at this point itself. If the GPA shows as 7, this is
clearly over than the 5 points system. So, such data can be discarded or
corrected right here itself without taking it for further processing.

2) Check the data transformation:

is where the raw data gets processed into business targeted information.

The source and destination data
types should match. E.g. You can’t store the date as text.

Primary key, foreign key, null,
default value constraints, etc. should be intact.

The ACID properties of source and
destination should be validated, etc.

3) Check the data Loading

The actual scripts that load the
data and testing them would be definitely included in your ETL testing. The
data storage system, however, has to be validated for the following:

Performance: As systems become more intricate, there are
relationships formed between multiple entities to make several co-relations.
This is great news for data analytics, however, this kind of complexity often
results in queries taking too long to retrieve results. Therefore, performance testing plays an important role here.

Scalability: Data is only going to increase not decrease.
Therefore, tests have to be done to make sure that the size of the growing
business and data volumes can be handled by the current implementation or not.
This also includes testing the archival strategy too. Basically, you are trying
to test the decision- “What happens to older data and what if I need it?”

It is also a good idea to test the
other aspects such as its computational abilities, recovery from failure, error
logging, exception handling, etc.

4) BI Report Testing:

This is what is considered Business
Intelligence. But, as you can see from the above, the reports are never going
to be correct, consistent and fast if your preceding layers were

to me, Larger
clients will benefit most from MasterCard’s analytics tools because:

It processes vast amount of data
that would take ages to analyze manually

It dismisses all sorts of actionable
intelligence boundaries, including locations, server logs, and access to
different markets

It helps them personalize sales
regardless of the number of customers they must attend to

It saves time and resources

It provides instant and real-time
answers in critical moments

It makes corporate information
accessible 24/7, and from a variety of devices

It protects sensitive and enclosed
corporate data

It helps make accurate predictions
for the future



cards, also known as wave-to-pay, tap-to-pay or contactless cards, contain a
computer chip and antenna instead of the magnetic stripe on the back of
traditional cards. The technology sends data wirelessly to a nearby terminal,
completing purchases with a process called near-field communication, or
NFC.Brands that use this technology include Visa payWave, MasterCard PayPass,
American Express ExpressPay and Discover Zip.

There are several types of tap &
go payment applications such as Samsung
Pay, Apple Pay, Android Pay or any bank mobile application that
support Contactless. Some suppliers claim that transactions can be
almost twice as fast as a conventional cash, credit, or debit card
purchase. Because no signature or PIN verification is
typically required, contactless purchases are typically limited to small value
sales. Lack of authentication provides a window during which fraudulent
purchases can be made.

Research indicates that consumers are likely to spend more
money using their cards due to the ease of small transactions. MasterCard says
it has seen “about 25 percent” higher spending by users of its MasterCard
Contactless-brand RFID credit cards.

No, there are no limits to the types of applications that
tap & go payments can be used for because
no signature or PIN verification is typically required,
contactless purchases are typically limited to a set maximum amount per
transaction, known as a “floor limit”. Limits may vary between banks.


 MasterPass is being embraced as payment
mechanism for online purchases of MasterCard’s PayPass digital wallet. With the MasterPass services, payment credentials
entered into the digital wallet will support technologies for payments in
brick-and-mortar stores as well. That means that providers using technologies
like NFC and QR codes at the point of sale can integrate with MasterPass and
use it to store consumer data safely in the cloud, accessing those credentials
whenever a purchase is made.

of PayPass:

Convenient as you just need to “tap
and pay” using your credit card or mobile phone without keying in a PIN or
signing a receipt.

Gives you peace of mind as you are
protected against fraudulent transactions.

Reduces threat of hackers who may
scan cards and steal valuable information as NFC uses data encryption when
sending sensitive information.

Cost and time efficient for the
average consumer.

You do not have to worry with typing
errors (such as incorrectly typing in your PIN) and connection is quicker on
the contactless terminal.

Retailers no longer have access to
your credit card information.

You are able to keep track of
rewards and use points for your purchases made in coffee shops or miles
redemption. Some banks even offer cash back and prizes when you use this feature.

Convenient and quick checkout
payments mean lesser queues and lining up.

of PayPass:

Only a few yet have adopted to this
technology so it might create confusion or frustration among users. Not all
consumers are educated on this technology.

Only consumers with smartphones or
those with PayWave/PayPass credit cards can use this technology.

You may lose your credit card and
your account may be compromised.

Risk of spyware or malware attacks
and other viruses like any computer device in the terminal.

You can’t change the limit or choose
the limit per transaction as chosen by the bank.

must ensure
that their customers information is encrypted and well protected, this is
hurdle that the company must face. So,they must develop the security
systems to avoid the potential security issues.


There are many challenges that
MasterCard faces in rolling out smartphone payment systems including the follow
seven significant hurdles:

payments aren’t seamless

Mobile payments don’t offer special incentives

Mobile payment infrastructure is slow to evolve

EMV transition won’t help mobile payments

Modern mobile payment experience is inconsistent

Ingrained behavior is tough to change

Mobile payment security concerns

According to me, Mobile payment
security concerns will be most difficult to address because Mobile payments may or may not be more secure than
other forms of payment, but some consumers at least fear that they aren’t and
therefore shy away from using smartphones and wearables at cash registers.
All-too-common data breaches at banks, credit card companies, retailers, and
others are widely reported in the media, fueling consumer anxieties. Thieves
have access to incredibly sophisticated tools to grab consumers’ passwords,
login credentials, and other personal data. And despite recent concerns exist
among some consumers that smartphones collect too much information about their
purchases and other activities.