Campbellsville of oral presentations in an automatic fashion Introduction









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Verbal Communication








of Contents:
Introduction. 3
Categories of
Non_Verbal Communications (NVC) 5
Communications. 5
Characteristics Affecting NVC in Service Encounters ……………………………6
of non-Verbal Communication…………………………………………………….…..8










oral communication competence is defined on the top of the most relevant skills
for one’s professional and personal life. Because of the importance of
communication in our activities of daily living, it is crucial to study methods
to evaluate and provide the necessary feedback that can be used in order to
improve these communication capabilities and, therefore, learn how to express
ourselves better. In this work, we propose a system capable of evaluating
quantitatively the quality of oral presentations in an automatic fashion


the society is demanding new kinds of competencies
to its citizens and especially its professionals. With the implementation of
the Bachelor degree in the European Higher Education Area, the concept of
competences became even more important in the educational field. One of the
main goals of this plan is to provide specific skills and competencies to the student. Oral expression
and communication are among the most relevant competencies
in everyone’s life. Communication is a process in which people verbally or
non-verbally share information and ideas. Non-verbal communication can be best
defined as a silent form of communicating with a person or party without using
any form of speech to grab the attention of the audience
or to exploit a message. Non-verbal communication is often used to express a
thought or thoughts and make your message more appealing and interesting to the
person you are speaking. Non-verbal communication has a great influence on our social environment and the whole
communication process. There are four important functions of non-verbal
communication. These functions can complement, regulate, substitute for, or
accent a verbal message. In addition to these functions, there are many types
of non-verbal communication: paralanguage, body movement, facial expressions,
eye messages, attractiveness, clothing, body adornment, space and distance,
touch, time, smell and manners.

a discussion of the details of this channel of communication, it is important
to understand the role and function in general terms. According to Richmond,
McCroskey and Payne (1991) there are six inter-related functions of NVC. At a
basic level, NVC can simply repeat or reinforce a verbal message, for example holding
up three fingers and ordering three drinks at a bar. The purpose in this
context is to increase the likelihood of the accurate reception of the verbal
message. The second function of
non-verbal communication is a substitute for a verbal message. For instance,
waving or beckoning is used where verbal communication is suboptimal due to distance or other situational

addition to the management of the personal interaction, the non-verbal behavior may also project a subtle
indication of emotion. The use of NVC to express emotions, communicate
attitudes and establish and maintain relationships is a recognized social
skill. Ehrenwald (1996) suggests that the development of empathy in
interactions is dependent almost exclusively on these non-verbal cues.
Similarly, Argyle (1983), and Keating et al. point out that facial expressions
constitute one of the most important means by which emotions are manifest. In
combination these non-verbal signals are salient indicators of thoughts and
attitudes and as such are a powerful complementary communication mechanism. In
process terms, NVC is a series of cues encoded by the sender, either
consciously or unconsciously, and subsequently decoded by the receiver. Communication
and reception of these messages happen
continuously on both sides of the dyad, forming a second level of conversation.
The impact of this communication channel is ultimately dependent upon accurate
coding and decoding of the signals by both parties. The problem is that within
this basic conversational paradigm there are a number of possibilities for a
breakdown in the discourse. For example, lack of eye contact could be
interpreted as lack of interest rather than embarrassment or distraction, and
vice versa. If verbal and non-verbal messages are synchronized both parties get
the right impression. The problem occurs when these two forms of communication
contradict each other, or one of the parties misinterprets part of the message.
As NVC is generally considered to be more credible as it is less controllable,
it is this part of the exchange that will carry more weight in decoding
underlying meaning.

Categories of Non-Verbal

communication can be divided into four categories: aesthetic, physical, signs,
and symbols.

Aesthetic communication occurs through creative expression. This would include
all the art forms: music, dance, theater, crafts, art, painting, and sculpture.
Ballet is an example of this, as there are
dance and music, but no spoken or sung words. Even in an opera, where there are
words, there are still facial expressions, costumes, posture, and gestures.

 2. Physical communication includes a smile or frown,
wink, touch, smell, salute, gesture, and other bodily movements. Social
conversation uses a lot of these physical signals along with the spoken words.

Signs are a more mechanical kind of non-verbal communication and include signal
flags or lights, a 21-gun salute, a display of airplanes in formation, horns,
and sirens.

Symbols of communication are used to build self-esteem. This includes jewelry,
cars, clothing, and other things to communicate social status, financial means,
influence, or religion.


Physical Communication

 Physical communication is the most used form
of non-verbal communication. A person who is aware of another person’s
non-verbal cues understands that person better. Even the way you are standing
and your position in a group of people can communicate. The amount of distance
between you and another person will be interpreted in a certain way, and the
meaning will change according to the culture. It can mean either an attraction
or can signal intensity. Standing side-to-side can show cooperation, where a
face-to-face posture may show competition. Your posture can communicate in a
nonverbal way, whether you are folding your arms, slouching, crossing your
legs, or standing and sitting erect. Finally, any actual touching can convey attraction
or a level of intimacy, e.g., shaking hands, patting the back, hugging,
pushing, or other kinds of touch. Other forms of non-verbal communication are
facial expressions, gestures, and eye contact. When someone is talking, they
notice changes in facial expressions and respond accordingly. These include
raising your eyebrows, yawning, sneering, rolling your eyes, gaping, and
nodding. The meaning of these movements is pretty much the same in all
cultures. Gestures, however, are many times an individual’s way of
communicating with most people gesture
when talking. Eye contact is very important in communicating nonverbally. You
can read a person’s emotion through his/her eyes, and many times it is not the
same emotion that their words are trying to convey.

Participant Characteristics Affecting
NVC in Service Encounters

effectiveness of NVC is also governed by the characteristics of the individuals
involved in the exchange, both customer, and
employee, and their likely response to coding and decoding signals. We can
identify three specific participant variables of note: culture, gender, and personality.


identifying differences in response to NVC psychologists have identified a
number of characteristics that would suggest that coding and decoding of this
type of information are not common.
Cultural norms and learned behaviors play an extremely large part in this
interpretation and there is evidence to show that people can read more
accurately the nonverbal behavior of others who are cultural, linguistically and racially similar. It is evident that
some behaviors are universal whilst others are not, for example, Keating et al. (1981) found that smiling was interpreted
as happiness in all of the cultures studied.


second major difference in the interpretation of non-verbal behavior is between
genders. Put simply, men and women behave differently and interpret the cues
they are presented with differently (Eisenberg and Lennon 1983). Women
generally smile more (and frown less), approach closer than men, fidget less and make more eye contact,
especially when listening (the submissive style). Women also respond more
positively to (appropriate) touch, as they perceive it to be friendly, while
males have a higher level of touch avoidance than women (Argyle 1994). As well
as these sex-norm differences in behavior, there are more subtle differences
between men and women, i.e. men speaking to men will use different NVC than men
speaking to women.


final individual characteristic that affects the interpretation of nonverbal behavior in service encounters is personality.
The consideration of personality, in general, is a far greater topic than can
be described here, as every non-verbal channel is affected by personality. The
important issue in The Role of Non-Verbal Communication in Service Encounters
17 this context is the way that individuals interact with the situation (Argyle
1994). This concept has two dimensions: communication competence and
communication apprehension (see Boorom, Goolsby and Ramsey 1998). Communication
competence refers to the ability to follow and make sense of conversations,
interaction involvement, and turn taking and yielding, all of which determine
the effectiveness of the interaction. Communication apprehensiveness is defined
as “an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real
or anticipated communication with another person or persons” (McCroskey
1984, p.l4). This type of apprehension varies on a continuum from a trait,
which is a generalized unease of an individual in communication situations, to
a state of fear in a specific situation. Individuals with communication
apprehension have poor cognitive processing during interactions and have been
found to differ on three behavioral characteristics: attentiveness,
perceptiveness, and responsiveness

Effects of Non-Verbal Communication

communication, especially body language, can send a strong message in spite of
what your words say. Even the tone of your voice, its pitch, volume, quality,
and speed affect what you say. Your body language can: • Repeat the message
your words are saying; • Contradict what your words are saying; • be a
substitution for your verbal message, and
Add to the meaning of your message. Relationships depend on a lot of non-verbal
communication for them to be strong and lasting. The quality of your
relationships can be improved if you can skillfully read people and understand
the emotions behind their words. When one party receives mixed signals, trust
can leave and thus damage the relationship. Trust can be created in a
relationship by sending nonverbal clues that match your words. The way you
respond to someone non-verbally can show that you understand and care about
them, and the relationship will grow and be fulfilling to both. Figure 1 shows the formation of an impression, which
indicates that 55% of body language works in our interactive communication.


communication plays an important role in all communications. It is impossible
to communicate without sending out non-verbal clues. These clues help others
determine the attitudes and attributes that may not be expressed by the words
spoken. One broad area of non-verbal communication involves body position and
motion. Referred to as kinesics, this area of non-verbal communication
encompasses posture, facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, and body
orientation. Individuals use these channels to convey a variety of emotions as
well as to display important clues regarding their personality. Posture is a
powerful way in which individuals send non-verbal clues. Posture clues are
often very subtle in nature so that individuals have to really look in order to
see them. On the other hand, some posture clues are very apparent. For
instance, when an individual slumps forward he or she is usually perceived as
being bored or extremely interested. A person who sits with his/her arms
crossed is sending out a non-verbal message that he/she is closed to
information. Posture clues are the easiest to interpret when the receiver
notices subtle changes the sender may not be aware of. An individual’s posture
provides important clues as to how an individual is feeling on the inside. A
person who is sitting in a rigid position is usually threatened by something or
someone, while a person sitting in a relaxed position appears to be comfortable
with his/her surroundings. In addition, posture can often signal real or
perceived status. In general, lower status individuals are usually more rigid
and tense in posture, while those of a higher status appear more relaxed.

of Non-Verbal Communication at Workplace In
the workplace, effective communication can be used to improve performance and
to produce the desired results. There are many non-verbal cues that are used
every day in the workplace, most of which
are stronger than the spoken language. Professionally speaking, a handshake can
make a strong first impression, whether it is positive or negative. Men tend to
have better handshaking skills than women; handshakes should be inviting,
strong but not overpowering. Workplace touching is often discouraged due to
sending out mixed messages, but handshakes are usually accepted and encouraged
in most cases. Eye contact is yet another important non-verbal cue that can be
used both positively and negatively in
the workplace. In the US, eye contact conveys honesty and sincerity; making eye
contact is often an invitation to open communication and signifies the need for
feedback. In contrast, avoiding eye contact signals distrust, suspicion, or
lack of interest; similarly, prolonged eye contact or a stare signifies
aggression or flirting. At the workplace, dressing professionally is something
most employees need to pay attention to, as it shows confidence in oneself.
American businesses value being on time and being conscientious of this is
crucial in business. Paying attention to all these non-verbal types of
communication can prove successful in almost every business. Non-verbal
communication has the ability to strengthen and develop the existing
relationships or it can destroy them. A relationship can be regulated by
non-verbal communication because it can support or replace verbal
communication. Some of the contributing factors are sending and receiving
ability and accuracy, the perception of
appropriate social roles, and cognitive desire for interpersonal involvement.
If the communicators are unaware of the types of messages they are sending and
how the receiver is interpreting the messages, difficulties can arise from
non-verbal communication. Facial expressions may intentionally or
unintentionally cause negative feelings. Introduction and management rely on
non-verbal communication in interpersonal relationships.


 Non-verbal communication is crucial in a plain
daily communication situation and it is also so for the interpreter. Non-verbal
communication can take various forms, each of which illustrates or replaces a
certain part of the verbal communication. It includes many more elements than
one might think at first. In order to be able to work properly, the
interpreters need to make sense of non-verbal cues. This is only possible
because a special part of our brain deals with the emotional part of the
message. Not only intelligence but also emotional intelligence is needed for
interpreting non-verbal elements. Whether non-verbal communication supports businessmen in their tasks or presents a
difficulty depends entirely on them and their actions. In general, as we advance
in our careers and even in our life, we tend to have more and be at least
better if not the best. Learning the non-verbal language is a very difficult
task that takes a lot of time and needs a lot of practice. But it is a very
important step that guarantees success in business. If a person can interpret
non-verbal language, he can control his own body language and his emotions;
this always guarantees success. Not everyone can verbally communicate well, but
everyone can learn how to interpret the non-verbal communication of others.





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