California supports the development of electriccharging stations through the California Energy Commission’s Alternative andRenewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (ARFVTP), ARFVTP fundshave provided 38.8 percent of statewide total public charging sites and 37.9percent of charging outlets 72.As of April2017 California has 29 Open-Retail HRSs and is expected to have 37 HRSs be openby the end of 2017 71. Table 26shows the number of HRSs in California through from 2013 to 2016. Table26. Number of HRSs inCalifornia from 2013 to 2016 71 Year Number of HRSs 2013 9 2014 10 2015 12 2016 29 2017 (expected by the end of the year) 37 As of June 2017, there are about 12,000 publiclyaccessible charging ports at more than 3,600 charging stations in California 73.
As of April 2017, more than 1,600 FCVs had active registrations in California 71.Table 27shows the number of FCVS on-the-road in California through 2013-2016 71.Table27. Number of FCVs inCalifornia (2013-2017) Year Number of FCVs 2013 125 2014 152 2015 179 2016 925 2017 (as of April) 1600 As of May2017, about 300,000 Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEV) and PHEVs have been sold inCalifornia 72.Assuming the sales of BEVs and PHEVs have been zero before 2009, Table28shows the number of electric vehicles based on the number of new registrationseach year. The data used was from California Auto Outlooks covering fourthquarter of 2013 74and first quarter of 2017 75.Table 28. Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs in California(2009-2017) 74, 75 Year Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs 2009 772 (100% BEV, 0% PHEV) 2010 1169 (92% BEV, 8% PHEV) 2011 8153 (78% BEV, 22% PHEV) 2012 29051 (43% BEV, 57% PHEV) 2013 71596 (48% BEV, 52% PHEV) 2014 131081 (49% BEV, 51% PHEV) 2015 193298 (51% BEV, 49% PHEV) 2016 268463 (52% BEV, 48% PHEV) 2017 (first quarter) 292733 (52% BEV, 48% PHEV) Based on the projections, California expects tohave 13,400 and 37,400 FCVs on-the-roadin 2020 and 2023, respectively 71.
Statewide Station Projections show 62HRSs in California in 2020 71.California targets a long-term goal of reaching 1.5 million ZEVs on roadways by2025 72.1 Analysis and discussionThe structureof the support for vehicle purchase and infrastructure development isdifferent. While in the case of purchase subsidy, the consumer stakeholder ownsthe vehicle and the government just pays the subsidy, in case of charginginfrastructure and refueling stations, a model of public-private partnership isfollowed in many countries.
Incentives for EVs purchase are of the directeconomic incentives and incentives for charging infrastructure is of directcollaborative and direct economic incentives. Direct incentive means that thesubsidy is transferred to consumer in monetary value 12 andcollaborative incentive means the government plays a collaborative andmanagerial role in developing infrastructure 13.Although thepurchase subsidy for vehicles is usually the most noticeable form ofsubsidizing EVs in each country or jurisdiction (a research in Norway showedthat for more than 80% of responders to a survey purchase tax and VAT are ofhigh importance 9),it should also be noted that incentivizing charging infrastructure has asignificant effect on the large-scale deployment of electric vehicles. Forinstance, Zubaryeva et al. 14stated that availability of proper number of charging infrastructure has asignificant effect on widespread deployment of electric vehicles in Europe. Sierzchula et al 15 also stated that adding a chargingstructure per 100,000 residents has twice the impact on the EV market share ina country than $ 1,000 financial incentives for consumers. Table 29 shows BEV, PHEV, and FCV stock incountries/jurisdictions compared in this work. As it can be seen, in 2016/2017the number of BEVs and PHEVs are considerably higher than the number of FCVs inall countries/jurisdictions considered.
Table29. Comparison of number ofBEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in different countries/jurisdictions Country BEV stock PHEV stock FCV stock Japan 86,390 (2016) 64,860 (2016) 1800 (March 2017) South Korea 10,770 (2016) 440 (2016) 100 (2016) China 483,190 (2016) 165,580 (2016) 60 (March 2017) Germany 40,920 (2016) 31,810 (2016) 477 (2017) France 66,970 (2016) 17,030 (2016) 130 (November 2016) United Kingdom 31,460 (2016) 54,960 (2016) 28 (Toyota Mirais sold until March 2017) Norway 98,880 (2016) 34,380 (2016) 80 (October 2017) Denmark 8100 (BEVs and PHEVs) 68 (September 2017) Sweden 8030(2016) 21,290 (2016) 8 (May 2016) California 139,600 (2016) 128,863 (2016) 1600 (April 2017) Numerousreasons contribute to the higher number of BEVs and PHEVs compared to FCVs. There are more models of BEVs and PHEVs availablefor purchase.
Governments have longer incentivized purchase of BEVs and PHEVscompared to FCVs. BEVs and PHEVs have also generally lower prices compared toFCVs. As there are more subsidies for BEV purchases all over the world comparedto FCVs, BEV manufacturers have bigger markets for mass production of theirvehicles. BEVs and PHEVs also have better consumer acceptability compared toFCV because of the concerns about the hydrogen stored in a FCV. BEVs and PHEVsalso don’t need extensive refueling infrastructure at the first stages ofdeployment like FCVs and BEV and PHEV owners can charge their vehicles at home.