BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search ToolHigh-throughout chaining has announce in a new age of genetic discovery, making it conceivable to tattily and quickly find mutations among the 3 billion base pairs of the human genome. Though, the first step is identifying mutations .
It falls to biologists, assisted by computer algorithms, to make sense of the growing body of data, to work out which genes and proteins confer illness and how. Search tool is chief among those algorithms . BLAST, is a search algorithm, achive this by analyzing gene and comparing protein sequences to a library or database of sequences and relevant scientific papers.BLAST Publications hold the 12th and 14th spots in a list of the 100 top-cited science papers of all time, according to the journal, Nature.
BLAST is being exceed, though, by Clustal, a similar program for aligning multiple sequences at once, according to Nature.NEIGHBOR-JOINING: PhylogeneticsA study illustrated “neighbor-joining” algorithm, when genetic sequencing paired , allows biologists to better understand the evolutionary relationships among species or populations to trace the phylogenetic relationships within major branches of the tree of life. Phylogenetic trees are used in drug development to, for example, identify widely related, naturally occurring chemical compounds suspected to have medicinal value. Phylogenetic trees of pathogens help phylogenetic understand the adaptive evolution of bacteria, viruses and parasites how they hits hosts, subvert immune systems and resist treatment. No. 20 on Nature’s list of top-cited science papers.Google Search: Page RankingWe do a lot of Internet searches every day using Google or Yahoo. Whatever the search engine, it’s a complex algorithm known as “page rank” that first, source the Internet for pages that have the key word you ender and then rank them based on factors, such as their location or their frequency of use.
“Googling” answers our burning questions, or at least gives us a start. But has it helped or hurt health care? It’s certainly democratized it and put more information within easy reach of patients.How it works to provide the expected service.Recently, the healthcare can be categorized in multiple ways based on the perspective of the technology, functionality and the benefits. There is a trend happening with the convergence of consumer devices and medical devices. Most recent smartphones are being launched with health sensors in the accessories like wrist gear.
This enables the Health, Which refers to the use of mobile and wireless technologies in the practice of medicine and public health monitoring. This reduces medical errors based on continual monitoring practices. IoT applications in healthcare can be grouped in to following categories based on the functionality.? People and objects tracking.? Identification and authentication? Collection and sensing data automatically Health trends can be analyzed with respect to the application areas in medical practice. Some of the applications areas are listed below Along with the use of the concept of process techniques and their benefits.
1- Wireless patient monitoring: This application is for remote monitoring of patients’ vital functions through the use of patient devices internally and externally. As opposed to discrete interactions, the provision of healthcare is moving to a model where information is being transmitted and shared between individuals and caregivers in real time. This is especially relevant for chronic disease management such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, asthma.2- Mobile system access: This application is based on the mobile technologies that enable remote / virtual access to existing clinical systems (eHealth records, archiving images, communication systems PACs, etc.). All the medical system can be automated with easy to use mobile app interface.
This application of technology in healthcare is referred as e-Health. If the mobile is used as monitoring and delivery of healthcare, the application area is termed as m-Health. Examples: Websites, portals, mobile apps.
3- Medical devices: This application is used to capture and track compliance with key care and disease management data. Mainly These fitness solutions are used to track patient activities and smart diagnostic devices used for capturing the data from the sensors for further analysis by physician. Google glass is also under research for possible medical devices as this can used to perform assisted surgeries and recording, etc.Its applications in real-life :•Medication Dispensing Device by Philips: remind patients of their doses; good for elderly patients.
•Niox Mino by Aerocrine: for routine measurements of Intric Oxide in a patient’s breath.•UroSense by Future Path Medical: for catheterized patients to check their core body temperature and urine output.•GPS SmartSole: this is a shoe-tracking wearable device for dementia patients who have the habit of forgetting things.IoT Healthcare Security:The IoT is growing rapidly.
In the coming years, the medical sector is expected to witness the widespread adoption of the IoT and flourish through new eHealth IoT devices and applications, they are expected to deal with vital private information such as personal healthcare data. Moreover, such smart devices may be connected to global information networks for their access anytime, anywhere. thus, the IoT healthcare domain may be a target of attackers. To facilitate the full adoption of the IoT in the healthcare domain, it is critical to identify and analyze distinct features of IoT security and privacy, including security requirements, vulnerabilities, threat models, and countermeasures, from the healthcare perspective.Security requirements for IoT-based healthcare solutions are similar to those in standard communications scenarios. Therefore, to achieve secure services, there is a need to focus on the following security requirements.
1) ConfidentialityConfidentiality ensures the inaccessibility of medical information for unauthorized users. In addition, confidential messages resist revealing their content to eavesdroppers.2) IntegrityIntegrity ensures that no adversary can alter the received medical data in transition. Furthermore, the integrity of stored data and content should not be compromised.
3) AuthenticationAuthentication ensures the identity of the communicated peer in IoT health device.4) AvailabilityAvailability ensures the survivability of IoT healthcare services (either local or global/cloud services) to authorized parties when needed even under denial-of-service attacks.5) Data FreshnessData freshness includes data freshness and key freshness. Because each IoT of healthcare networks provides time-measuring techniques, there is a need to make sure that each message is new. The freshness of the data essentially means that each data set is up-to-date and ensures that no rebate replays in old messages.6) Non-Repudiationnon-repudiation indicates that the node can not refuse to send a previously sent message.The strengths of IoT in healthcare:1. Decreased Costs: ?When healthcare providers benefit from linking health care solutions, patients can be monitored on a real-time basis, thereby significantly reducing unnecessary visits by doctors.
In particular, advanced home care facilities offer a guarantee of reduced hospital stay and re-admission2.Improved Outcomes of Treatment: ?Connecting health care solutions through cloud computing or other virtual infrastructure gives caregivers access to real-time information that enables them to make informed decisions as well as provide evidence-based treatment. This ensures timely health care delivery and improved treatment outcomes.3.Improved Disease Management: ?If patients have been monitored on a continuous basis and health care providers are able to access real-time data, diseases are treated before they get out of control.
4.Reduced Errors: ?Accurate data collection, automated workflow combined with data-driven decisions are an excellent way to minimize waste, reduce system costs and, most importantly, reduce errors.?5.Enhanced Patient Experience:?Linking the health care system through the Internet of things, puts the focus on the needs of the patient. That is, proactive treatments, improved accuracy when it comes to diagnosis, timely intervention by doctors and results of enhanced treatment leads to responsible and highly reliable care among patients.The weaknesses of IoT in healthcare:Although IoT is transformative in the health care sector, it also presents a number of challenges given that health data is sensitive. As such, when they share inappropriately, health information may harm reputation or destroy careers among other things.
Data security is another risk factor that is likely to increase as the level of data being shared increases. The volume of data in increase significantly and thus the need to protect this information from cyber-attacks.What’s next for IoT technology in the health sector?IoT holds the potential power to revolutionize the healthcare industry, but not before overcoming security barriers and proprietary of data.¬ Remote presence proves a major win for telemedicine – be it before or after a visit to the doctor’s office or hospital. The biggest health technology advocates believe that tele-health efficiency can significantly reduce the need for routine reviews and tests. Patients will also be allowed out of hospitals and clinics earlier, where professionals are enabled to monitor them from home instead of keeping them in hospitals for surveillance.¬ Ideally, objective data that can be taken from a network of IoT objects will also significantly reduce margins of error.
In the predictive area, for example, it can be able to detect the onset of a wide range of health issues, from high blood pressure to early signs of delirium. Thus, in theory, emergency admissions can be reduced – with proactive health systems to address problems before they become more serious or irreversible.¬ Some companies want to make it possible to attend a full health appointment from the comfort of your home, so health professionals from around the world can provide consultation or even diagnosis hundreds of miles away.Conclusion:As discussed in this report, all the physical objects will work seamlessly with machineto-machine and human-to-machine interfaces. This level of interconnection is a boon for the healthcare, where health influencing factors both internal & external to the human body can be analyzed based on the model.
These factors along with the genomic inputs shall make it possible to predict the health trends and allergies of the person; thereby the technology can provide customized recommendations on suitable physical activities, diets, etc. This mobile doctor buddy apps are not meant to be the replacement for experience of the doctors. They should work collaboratively with the doctor. In this approach of complementing the doctor with the technology based inputs, the new trends in IoT has the capability to transform the way the primary healthcare is delivered to the patients.Finally, healthcare institutions should enter into agreements with vendors that require the connected devices to be updated with improved security over time and that the updates are tested and verified before being put into use.
Given the nature of healthcare data and potential legal liability for resulting data breaches, the “Internet of Things” at healthcare institutions and the contracts that cover them need to constitute a “Security of Things.”