BACKGROUUND AND CONTEXTWOMEN POLITICSAlthough section 40 sub section 42 of the Nigerianconstitution provides a platform for men and women equal opportunity todemocratic governance, giving prohibitions to any means of discrimination,facts on ground do not give credits to this standing. Dating back to 2007general Nigeria’s election, only 6% of elected political office where womenbringing the ranking of the country compared to the other west Africancountries very low, being that the sub-regional average is put at 12% which practicallyis a far cry from the 30% recommended in Beijing in 1995. Despite the fact thatwomen constitute about half the population size of the country and have playedvery key roles in the past their participation in formal and informalstructures and processes where decision regarding the use of societal resourcesgenerated by both men and women remains insignificant (Makama, June 2013).The gleaming issue still is that why are this set bacs still a part of thepolitical system? Over thecenturies feminist has being stereotyped as dependent, submissive, andconforming making women lack leadership qualities raising the bias of men toportray leadership as command or control instead of a process of mobilizing andengaging humans which can bring a new platform for women leadership (Burns, 1978).The potentials of women to be a part of theadministrative strategic decision makers are high and are sure to bringpositive impact to the system of democratic governance. As in the past from thebirth of the office of the first lady in 17 by the wife of the then Head ofstate Babangida till date we have seen several women with great political ambitions women like NgoziOkono Iwela (finance minister), Dora Akunyili (drugs enforcement agency) etc.
have all shown positive intents and worked significantly in their variousoffices. Nigerian women haveencountered a number of troubles even as venturing into politics. this is as aresult of huge scale marginalization both in balloting physical games and inallocation of political workplaces. Political violence and the social stigma thatpolitics is a grimy game is a in addition stumbling block for ladies to turnout to be actively concerned inside the politics of Nigeria, these are the maincauses for the low illustration of women in Nigeria’s political terrain, extraoften than not, men constitute a larger percentage of the celebrationmembership and this tends to affect women in terms of deciding on or electingcandidates for positions (Bakpa, n.d.). However, in Nigeriathe extant National gender policy (NGP) recommended 35% affirmative actioninstead and sort for more inclusive representation of women with at least 35%of both elective and political and appointive public service positionsrespectively (oluyemi, 2016).
Sources have witnessed that the low response of women in the Nigerian politicalsystem started from the period of pre-colonial masters giving rise to the patriarchalsystem which in the long run have made it seem like men are always meant to beat the forefront and women their subordinates. Thepolitical enfranchisement of women in Nigeria politics seems to have maintainedat the surface a degree of gender equity politically, because it is assumedthat constitutionally there are not obstacles to women’s participation. however,what precisely is/are the issues and potentialities girls come across in theirquest to take part in politics? women move can be said to were largelyanswerable for increase in political participation of women (Agbalajobi, February 2010). The purposeof this research will be solely to look into the hindrances women encounterwith regard to engaging in political run for offices.
By looking at variouspolitical parties using various research procedure like conducting keyinformant interviews, distribution of questionnaires to see if truly democracyis practiced faithfully. RESEARCHQUESTION & HYPOTHESISThis research will be involved in four researchquestions followed by the hypothesis.1. WHY IS IT DIFFICULT FOR WOMEN TOENGAGE IN POLITICS AS ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS?The null hypothesis, in this case, would be that they are not givenenough support from this political parties to engage as active as their malecounterparts which entail leads to a pullback or discourages their efforts. 2. IT THE PRACTICE OF DEMOCRACY TRULY A PARTNERSHIP OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITY BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN?The null hypothesis, in this case, could be that since the pre-colonial era the issue of patriarchy hasdeeply eaten into the political system to an extent to which we as men nolonger see women as equal but as subordinates. My expectation here will be tosee that a substantial percentage of patriarchy still very much exist orpracticed.
3. WHAT OPPORTUNITYDO WOMEN HAVE AS THEY GROW IN THEIR POLITICALCAREER IN THIS PARTIES?The null hypothesis, in this case, would be that despite the claimsof gender equality, due to the presence of “internal democracy” still amongstthe party members and officials we see that women are still sidelines I expectto see that most of their career growth is cut short due to such reasons. 4. WHAT ARE THE STRATEGIES THAT WOMENNEED TO IMBIBE OR GET ACCUSTOMED TO IN OTHER REACH A LEVEL PLAYING GROUND WITH THEIRMALE COUNTERPARTS TO ATTAIN SUCH KEY POSITIONS?The null hypothesis here would bethat a grassroots reformation strategyfrom the family schools and culture to break the barrier which are nurturedfrom very young age i.e encouraging children despite their gender to seethemselves as people of same relevance to the society at large bearing in mindbeing able to give equal support at any point in time.
In addition to this research /studywe will also be considering the following issues and questions:· As women in various political parties willbe approached to fill up questionnaires, personally the researcher would wantto know or put into account if leadership education was something which wasbeing taught to them and if not, how did they find a way to break through this”GLASS CEILING”.· Also, the study will like to know whattheir male counterparts feel about the issue of women putting out that they donot get enough support as them and their advice to women? LITERATURE REVIEW over the past years there has been a serious deliberation on the issue regardingwomen leadership however from colonialism came the point of women’s autonomyand traditional positions. The British most times found women autonomous, theyinstituted a “Victorian framework” which circumscribed making them looseautonomist nature giving birth to patriarchal system, for example looking atthe northern part of Nigeria colonialism encouraged expansion of Islamic idealsmaking them exclude women from politics and other public affairs (Awomolo, 1997) (sue Ellen Charlton, 1989).This patriarchal system which has eaten up virtually into every practices, system, andsector in Nigeria bringing up a structureof gender inequality and many other negativeeffects on the economical andsocio-cultural values of the country. On the surface it looks like gender hasno significant role and that the country is presumably gender neutral, andpotential women are equal to their competitors; however, this remains anuntapped dream of liberal pluralist (sue Ellen Charlton, 1989) cited in (Awomolo, 1997). Nature of Politics in Nigeria In Nigerianthe nature of politics is characterized by way of violence, it’s miles said tobe very violent for those with the hearts and minds of stone, can face up tosuch violence.
we’ve witnessed and heard approximately violence that transpireseach election season, a woman, certainly would now not need to get worried inwhich includes she has lots to lose, health wise and beauty clever. If maximumladies hold to assume this manner, there is no way any female might need totake part in politics or allow any familymember of hers to take part. there are numerous extra elements not point out,but it’s miles believed that the above elements are principal factors hinderingwomen political participation, however it is time to do so by calling on allgirls to learn the way to take part in politics (neighborhood, nation, countrywide or international levels) (Amu, 2016). Women’sengagement in politics in Nigeria is essential as it is a known fact that nocountry can make a fast growth when one half of the country’s population are under-represented, undermined economically andpotentially weak, while the other half is economically dominant and politicallypowerful. That which is been said is that women lack the competence and theright amount of sophistication to hold themselves against their male opponentsand have failed to key into the major agendas of the country.
Looking from theside of this political parties, they do have manifestos from their constitutionstating that both men and women have equal and full support from the party,manifestos of some of this parties also affirm in favor of men example: APC(all progressive party) one of the major political parties in Nigeria, section16. In Nigeria, a number of women lackeffective energy or have an impact on, in particular in federal authorities’structure. Many of them do no longerhave the important talents to provide ideas efficiently. lack of understandingof political participation way insufficient contribution to public affairs andgirls’ empowerment. when women are giventhe possibility of participation in leadership, they will understand those troublesand cope with them to accommodate the completeparticipation of ladies in management in any respect degrees of the armsof government (Akokuwebe, July 2015). Increasingrepresentation in population and economic positions has been recognized as adevelopmental goal giving big ups to the Beijing platform for the recommendation of the 30% target for women inNational parliament which was implemented and should have had a positive impact, if it was fully implemented (Amadi, 2007). Fromthe table below, it is clear that all parts of the world, women have beenhistorically discriminated against electoral issues.
the good news is thatmarginalization can be addressed through concerted efforts. Thus, somecountries now have female heads of state such as Germany and Liberia (Igbuzor, 2011)Table: DEMOCRATIZATION OFSUFFRAGE IN SELECTED COUNTRIES COUNTRY MALE UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE FEMALE UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE AUSTRALIA 1903 1908 CANADA 1915/18 1920 GREAT BRITHIAN 1877 1928 SWEDEN 1923 1921 PORTUGAL 1911 1974 JAPAN 1918/19 1947 NIGERIA 1922 1979 FRANCE 1869/71 1946 ITALY 1925 1940 SOURCE: OTIVE IGUZO R, REDEFINING WINNING: WOMENS EMERGENCEIN POLITICAL LEADERSHIP POSITIONS.Gender roles areorchestrated by gender inequality. Gender roles are behavioral sports relatedto sexes in a social or interpersonal relationship in a selected subculture.
Gendernorms are reinforced in defining masculine and feminine identities (Azuh, 2014). Seeingthe issue of marginalization in the past and how efforts have been made toeliminate it the percentage rate of change has not been really significant froma statistical point of view/perspective. Nigerianwomen had been marginalized in political participation no matter the crucialsocial and financial roles they’ve played over time. African women specially the ones from Nigeriain reaction to the possibilities created by means of industrial capitalism andglobalization commenced looking for to persuade the dispensation of right instep with their articulated pursuits, needs and issues as fundamental motivesfor political participation as a way to create and make certain sustainabledemocratic governance in Nigeria (Odi, 2012). Affirmative actions have been takento remove continuous setbacks/obstaclesto political progress which will entail reducinghistorical imbalance.
Also, severalempowerment forums and mass mobilization campaigns have been initiated to breaktradition and stereotypes of women’s role. In spite of several of some of this strategy that has been initiated to which Nigeria is a signatory, they are stillflashing issues of gender inequality at all levels of decision making (oluyemi, 2016). SIGNIFICANCEOF THIS STUDY The resultof this study will be reverberated to the benefit of Nigeria at large and thepolitical parties, being that women play a vital role in the society andconsidering the fact that they do constitute about half the population of thecountry. Grassroot education for kids ofdifferent genders to see themselves as equal to fit into any position of theirchoice, here breaking the barrier of cultural / family effect.
Furthermore, thiswill also erase the issues of internal democracy within each political party henceforth suppressing the issue of womenworking /striving 10 times more to run on an equallevel playing ground as their male counterparts. The deepening of democracy and democraticestablishments is inevitably leading to the gradual revision of laws andprovisions which can be antithetical to the hobby of ladies. This improvement andresearch is similarly galvanized via the function of transnationalestablishments and corporations in creating consciousness and advocacy forincreased position for women in country wide improvement specifically becauseit affects political participation. those efforts have yielded a variety ofeffective effects. in many quarters the hitherto current prejudices anddiscrimination in opposition to ladies in public affairs is steadily ebbing asrising societal establishments are been transformed to formally accord ladiesequal privilege and standing with guys in step with constitutional provisions (Ngara, 2013).The research will equallybe bene?cial to NGOs, students and authorities’ businesses on gender-related problems together with the Inter-parliamentary Union, Unitedinternational locations’ department for the advancement of women (DAW)Committee for the removal of all form of Discrimination against ladies (CEDAW)as it will aid them in their search forgender equality. similarly, the tips and pointers so as to be pro?ered on this observertation will assist enhance the extentof political participation of women in Nigeria. (STELLA, 2015) Itsgoing to be very much beneficial to the aspiring youths who want to getinvolved in politics when women who have acquired some previous positions inthe government initiate some mentoring programs which will prepare them for allobstacles keeping them competent, sophisticated and most importantly motivated enoughkeying them into the major agendas of the country for attracting more femaleand male supporters.
For the researcher, this study will help him/herunderstand the areas which are lacking in the aspect of women politics inNigeria, as he/she is aspiring to venture into politics someday, and seeinginto some missing issues concerning this topic. Thus, some time later in future new theories on how this issue will besolved may be uncovered (Regoniel, 2015) METHODSRESEARCHMETHODS, DESIGN AND METHODS First ofall, all political potential parties and empowerment groups will be identified (Aydinel, 2015). Thisresearch will involve the two (2) major parties in Nigeria and for the empowermentgroups, a random selection will be doneselecting just two (2) groups giving them all an equal opportunity to beselected. In this study, the researcherwill be using a cross-sectional design to survey the various political partiesand empowerment groups. This will be done at a period near to the generalelection of the country when all parties are active to make sure that thesample size is equally distributed, and all members available. Five (5) womenand five (5) men are selected from both political parties making a total of ten(10) persons per political party. The research will be more exploratory beingthat we need to get detailed information/ data and feedbacks from our samples. Also from the sample a key informant interview will bescheduled and conducted for some specific persons from the various sample size.
The interview will be a semi-structuredinterview, with more open-ended questions so as to get detailed requiredinformation from the interviewee. Aself-administered questionnaire will be distributed randomly to ten (10) womenfor the various empowerment groups. The questions will be slightly open-endedalso in other for sample size to say how the truly feel about this issue. Fromthe party sample size, a case narrative will be carried out with severalsuccessful women who have been able to break major boundaries they have facedand whose story can illuminate how prospects will navigate through political,public and personal hindrances and adopt best practices that can promote genderstability and equality. RESEARCHETHICSThe researcher has to ensure that he/she getsappropriate consent signed from respondent as a surety of their understanding andacceptance to be involved in this study ensuring that he/she is not beingforced but get involved at their own free will. Also, required approval fromthe sample area (political parties) is relevant to ensure that they are no mix up or denials given on attempt to conduct exercise/study.
Questionnaires which aredistributed to sample will be shared or given to those who are willing and feelthey want to be part of the study. Lastlyit is imperative that the evaluation process does not in any way harm(unintended or otherwise) participants. CONCLUSION Major hindrances as to why women do notengage/contest for key political offices in Nigeria wasa bit tasking to find articles that arerelated to this topic is that most of thearticle online where mostly generalizing the political system of Governancewhile I was researching from the aspect of the political parties andempowerment groups.
This research will also improve motivation for women asthey will be able to understand thehindrances they face and how to overcome them also for the younger generation,they will be opportune to get leadership and empowerment education as they grow without the issue of patriarchy andelimination of culture. By the development of thisproposal we will begin to see gradual positive results politically andeconomically in the nearest future.